- Open Access
Decreased levels of genuine large free hCG alpha in men presenting with abnormal semen analysis
© Zenzmaier et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
- Received: 15 July 2011
- Accepted: 12 August 2011
- Published: 12 August 2011
The pregnancy hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and its free subunits (hCG alpha, hCG beta) are produced in the male reproductive tract and found in high concentrations in seminal fluid, in particular hCG alpha. This study aimed to elucidate changes in peptide hormone profiles in patients showing abnormal semen analyses and to determine the genuineness of the highly abundant hCG alpha.
Seminal plasma was obtained from 45 male patients undergoing semen analysis during infertility workups. Comprehensive peptide hormone profiles were established by a panel of immunofluorometric assays for hCG, hCG alpha, hCG beta and its metabolite hCG beta core fragment, placental lactogen, growth hormone and prolactin in seminal plasma of patients with abnormal semen analysis results (n = 29) versus normozoospermic men (n = 16). The molecular identity of large hyperglycosylated hCG alpha was analyzed by mass-spectrometry and selective deglycosylation.
hCG alpha levels were found to be significantly lower in men with impaired semen quality (1346 +/- 191 vs. 2753 +/- 533 ng/ml, P = 0.022). Moreover, patients with reduced sperm count had reduced intact hCG levels compared with normozoospermic men (0.097 +/- 0.022 vs. 0.203 +/- 0.040 ng/ml, P = 0.028). Using mass-spectrometry, the biochemical identity of hCG alpha purified from seminal plasma was verified. Under non-reducing conditions in SDS-PAGE, hCG alpha isolated from seminal plasma migrated in a manner comparable with large free hCG alpha with an apparent molecular mass (Mr, app) of 24 kDa, while hCG alpha dissociated from pregnancy-derived holo-hCG migrated at approximately 22 kDa. After deglycosylation with PNGase F under denaturing conditions, all hCG alpha variants showed an Mr, app of 15 kDa, indicating identical amino acid backbones.
The findings indicate a pathophysiological relevance of hCG, particularly its free alpha subunit, in spermatogenesis. The alternative glycosylation pattern on the free large hCG alpha in seminal plasma might reflect a modified function of this subunit in the male reproductive tract.
- Luteinizing Hormone
- Seminal Plasma
- Total Testosterone
- Seminal Fluid
Male fertility abnormalities are diagnosed by physical examination, endocrine parameters and assessment of semen quality. Endocrine analyses include hormones of the pituitary testicular axis, i.e. pituitary-derived gonadotropins luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), total testosterone (TT) and free/bioavailable testosterone. Other hormones, such as prolactin (hPRL), estrogen, or stress hormones, are also important parameters of the male fertility workup.
In the present study, the local profile of endocrine parameters, i.e. hCG-like substances and the family of protein hormones prolactin (hPRL), growth hormone (GH) and placental lactogen (PL), was analyzed in seminal plasma of men with abnormal semen analysis findings and compared to normozoospermic men to clarify a possible pathophysiological role of these hormones in spermatogenesis disorders. An important question was whether the highly abundant hCGα is genuine hCGα or a moderately-defined hCGα-like substance. Thus, the glycosylation pattern of hCGα, which has two N-glycosylation sites at Asn52 and Asn78 , was purified from seminal plasma and the isolated protein analyzed by mass-spectrometry.
Determination of serum hormone levels
All blood samples were obtained between 8 and 10 a.m. and were immediately transferred to the laboratory for further processing. Hormonal analyses included the determination of FSH, LH, TT and hPRL. FSH and LH analysis was performed using a standard two step immunoassay (Architect FSH, Abbott; ref. B7K750; Architect LH, Abbott; ref. 34-4522/R8). hPRL levels were determined by the two-step immunoassay Architect Prolactin (Abbott; ref. B7K760), TT levels by the Architect Testosterone Assay (Abbott; ref. B7K730). All assays were performed according to manufacturer's instructions.
Human semen samples were collected after 4 days of ejaculatory continence from 45 male patients undergoing semen analysis as part of an infertility workup at the Andrology Division of the Department of Dermatology, Univ. of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany, between 1995 and 1997. Semen samples were obtained and processed as recommended in the WHO Laboratory Manual for the Examination of Human Semen and Semen-Cervical Mucus Interaction . None revealed the presence of antisperm antibodies in their seminal plasma or sera as shown by the immunobead technique . The seminal fluid remaining after routine testing was aspirated from the spermatozoal pellet and stored at -20°C until use. After thawing, the seminal fluids were centrifuged at 40,000 × g to remove residual debris and then assayed. All patients gave written informed consent.
Semen analysis was performed by determination of pH, liquefaction time, volume, total and progressive motility at 60 min after ejaculation, sperm/round cell/germ cell/leukocyte counts, and the total and specific head/midpiece/tail percentage of abnormal forms according to the WHO criteria of 1995. Morphology was determined on methanol-fixed (2.5 min) and giemsa-stained (10 min) sperm smears by light microscopy and by two independent observers by using the strict Kruger criteria. Viability of sperm was measured by eosin Y staining. The concentration of polymorphonuclear neutrophil white blood cells was measured by peroxidase staining.
Patients were grouped according to their semen analysis; abnormal semen results (n = 29): oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT, n = 7), asthenoteratozoospermia (n = 2), asthenozoospermia (n = 3), teratozoospermia (n = 1), oligozoospermia (n = 2), cryptozoospermia (n = 8), azoospermia (n = 6), and normozoospermic men (n = 16).
Time-resolved immunofluorometric assays
Generation and characterization of monoclonal Antibodies (mAbs) against intact hCG, hCGβ, hCGβcf, hCGα and FSH and GH, hPRL and PL has been described in detail [17–20]. The mAbs against hCG/hCG-variants were previously used as reference reagents in the international TD-7 Workshop on antibodies to hCG and hCG-related molecules . Sensitive and specific IFMAs for hCG, free hCGα, free hCGβ and the hCGβcf, respectively, were developed on the basis of our panel of mAbs [21, 22]. MAb pairs for each of the four IFMAs were selected on the basis of antigen specificity, epitope localization and compatibility [11, 17, 18, 23–25].
The National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC; South Mimms, UK) kindly provided the International Standards (IS) for hCG IS75/537, hCGβ IS 75/551, hCGα IS 74/569. Highly purified hCGβcf was a gift by Drs. Klaus Mann and Rudy Hoermann (Essen, Germany).
Coating mAbs were coded as INN(sbruck)-hCG-45 (hCG+hCGn-assay), -68 (hCGβ-assay), -106 (hCGβcf-assay) and INN-hCG-72 (hCGα-assay). The detection mAbs (INN-hFSH-158 for the hCGα-assay were directed against epitope α3, presumably located on loop 3 of GPHα. To improve assay homogeneity, a single mAb (code: INN-hCG-22) recognizing a broad spectrum of hCG and hCG-like molecules, i.e. hCG, nicked hCG (hCGn), hCG lacking the carboxyl-terminal peptide of the β-subunit (-CTPhCG), hCGβ, hCGβn, -CTPhCGβ and hCGβcf, was labeled with isothiocyanatophenylene triamintetraacetic acid-europium (Wallac, Turku, Finland) according to the manufacturer's recommendations  and used as a detection reagent in the 3 assays for hCG, hCGβ and hCGβcf, respectively.
Specificity of IFMAs for hCG and/or hCG-variants
Detection mAb Epitope localization
hCG intact αβ heterodimer, bioactive;
hCGn nicked αβ heterodimer, nicks in the region of aa hCGβ44-48
hCGβ loop 2
hCGβ loops 1+3
hCGβ intact non-combined free hCGβ-subunit, aa hCGβ1-145;
hCGβcf core fragment of hCGβ; aa hCGβ6-40 linked to hCGβ55-92;
hCGβn nicked hCGβ, nicks in the region of aa hCGβ44-48
hCGα intact non-combined free a-subunit of hCG; aa hCGα1-92
Loop 3 (Tyr 65)
Purification of hCGα from seminal plasma by immunoprecipitation
Seminal plasma samples from three normozoospermic men were pooled and 1 ml of the pool was diluted 1:2 with modified RIPA buffer (10 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.4; 150 mM NaCl; 1% NP-40; 0.25% Na-deoxycholate, complete Mini Protease Inhibitor Cocktail (Roche Diagnostics) and 15 μl monoclonal antibody (4 mg/ml; Code INN-hFSH-132; ). The mixture was incubated overnight at 4°C on a rotary shaker. A Protein-G agarose resin (Upstate) was added and samples were incubated for further 2 h at 4°C. Thereafter, samples were centrifuged, supernatant removed and the Protein-G agarose resin was washed 5 times with modified RIPA buffer. The Protein-G agarose resin was heated to 95°C for 10 min in 50 μl modified RIPA buffer and centrifuged at 16,000 g for 10 min. The pellet was discarded and the hCGα-containing supernatant stored at -20°C.
Digestion with glycosidase
hCGα purified from seminal plasma by IP, as described above (2.4.) and, for comparative purposes, large free hCGα purified by HPLC from supernatant of HEK293 stably transfected with β2AR and specifically stimulated with 10 μM isoproterenol , as well as the frozen carrier-free concentrate (FC 862) of the WHO adopted 1st International Reference Preparation for Immunoassay of hCGα (1st IRP hCGα 99/720) were deglycosylated with peptide N-glycanase PNGase F (New England BioLabs). For digestion under non-reducing conditions to remove the glycan at Asn52 [29, 30], 15 μl samples equivalent to 150 ng hCGα were incubated with 1.5 μl 0.5 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.5), 1.5 μl NP-40 and 1 μl Enzyme (PNGase F, 500 U) for 2 hrs at 37°C. For digestion under reducing conditions to remove both glycan moieties, samples were incubated with 1.5 μl 10× denaturing buffer (5% SDS, 10% β-mercaptoethanol) for 10 min (95°C) and put on ice prior to deglycosylation.
Samples were diluted with sample buffer to 25 μl, separated via gel electrophoresis on 4% stacking and 13% separating gels and transferred to an Immun-Blot™ polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane (Bio-Rad Laboratories). Membranes were probed with mouse monoclonal antibody INN-hFSH-132 at a dilution of 1:2,000 for blots under non-reducing conditions and rabbit hCGα antiserum at a dilution of 1:10,000 for reduced proteins, respectively. Detection was performed with HRP-conjugated secondary antibodies (Promega), chemoluminescent substrate (Amersham ECL™ Western Blotting Analysis System, GE Healthcare) and exposure to ECL Hyperfilm (GE Healthcare).
Verification of hCGα by mass spectrometry
hCGα purified from seminal plasma by IP, as described above (2.4.), was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, and the protein band at 24 kDa was excised from the gel and digested with endoproteinase Lys-C [EC 22.214.171.124] (Sigma-Aldrich, 1/20 w/w) in 100 mM H4HCO3 buffer (pH = 8.0) for 2 hours at 37°C. The digest was analyzed using nano-HPLC consisting of an UltiMate 3000 System (Dionex Corporation) connected online to a linear iontrap mass spectrometer ThermoElectron Finnigan LTQ) equipped with a nanospray ionization source. The nanospray voltage was set at 1.6 kV, the heated capillary was held at 200°C.MS/MS, and spectra were searched against a human protein database using SEQUEST (LCQ BioWorks; ThermoFinnigan).
Results are expressed as mean values ± SEM. Statistical differences among groups were calculated by unpaired Student's t-test and considered significant at P < 0.05.
Characterization of patients: Serum hormone levels
Decreased hCGα levels in seminal plasma of men with abnormal semen analysis results
Hormone and hormone derivative levels [ng/ml] in seminal plasma
N (n = 16)
37.1 ± 1.7
53.7 ± 5.1
2753 ± 533
2.05 ± 0.29
0.007 ± 0.001
0.203 ± 0.040
0.023 ± 0.006
0.095 ± 0.072
4.00 ± 16.11
7.82 ± 0.86
Path (n = 29)
34.1 ± 1.5
1346 ± 191
2.22 ± 0.38
0.279 ± 0.101
0.028 ± 0.005
7.54 ± 0.78
AS (n = 3)
34.0 ± 4.9
77.2 ± 21.9
820 ± 402
5.29 ± 2.78
0.840 ± 0.711
0.629 ± 0.566
T (n = 1)
AST (n = 2)
O (n = 2)
OAT (n = 7)
29.0 ± 1.9
3.7 ± 0.8
1107 ± 176
1.38 ± 0.24
0.102 ± 0.037
0.029 ± 0.007
5.44 ± 1.16
C (n = 8)
34.5 ± 2.7
1522 ± 428
2.04 ± 0.41
0.122 ± 0.016
0.039 ± 0.012
8.85 ± 1.73
A (n = 6)
39.8 ± 3.3
1108 ± 394
2.35 ± 0.82
0.066 ± 0.018
0.016 ± 0.006
7.88 ± 0.34
Decreased seminal plasma holo-hCG levels in patients with decreased sperm count
Genuine large hCGα in seminal plasma
Given the high free hCGα levels in seminal fluid compared with serum (approximately 10,000-fold higher, as described previously ) and the decreased levels in seminal plasma of patients with poor semen analysis, the hormone derivative from these patients was purified and investigated in more detail.
MS/MS analysis of free hCGα isolated from seminal plasma
70 - 75
88 - 99
Protein and glycoprotein hormone-like substances have been described previously in human seminal fluid, but the lack of antibodies and consequent sandwich assays with clearly defined glycoprotein hormone variant recognition patterns meant that a general variant profile of these markers and their relationship to fertility disturbances could not be accomplished. We analyzed the profile of endocrine parameters in patients with abnormal semen analysis findings in comparison to normozoospermic men to elucidate a putative pathophysiological role of glycoprotein hormone variants in spermatogenesis disorders.
To characterize the patient cohort serum levels of TT, FSH, LH and hPRL were analyzed. In accordance with previous reports , significantly higher serum hPRL levels were found in men with abnormal semen analysis, but still within the normal range, indicating that the patients did not suffer from hyperprolactinemia. Mean serum FSH levels were above the normal reference range (1.3 - 8.4 mIU/ml ) in patients with abnormal semen analysis and highest in patients with cryptozoospermia and azoospermia, reflecting a decline in function of seminiferous tubules . High heterogeneity of FSH levels indicated that men with both obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia were included in the study cohort.
In seminal plasma levels of hCGα were found to be significantly lower in patients with abnormal semen analyses. Similarly, in patients with reduced sperm count, intact hCG levels were significantly lower. In these patients, the hCGα/hCG ratio was comparable with normozoospermic men, indicating co-secretion of free hCGα and hCGα associated with hCGβ. Compared with hCG, free hCGβ is present in seminal plasma in an approximately 10-fold, and free hCGα in an approximately 10,000-fold excess. Thus, free hCGα appeared as large subunit, distinct from the α subunit present in hCG  and unable to associate with the available β subunit. Non-associable and associated hCGα seem to be secreted at a constant ratio of approximately 10,000:1, the latter being the rate limiting subunit of holo-hCG association. On the other hand, the hCGα/hCG ratio was reduced in patients with astheno-, terato- or asthenoteratozoospermia, although the limited number of patients in this cohort require confirmation of these alterations by further research. Other hormone variants were not significantly different in the cohorts tested and generally expressed at low levels.
The pathophysiological role of reduced hCGα and hCG levels is uncertain. We previously showed hCGβ expression in the testis in peritubular and presumably Leydig cells . Due to its structural homology to LH, hCG is able to stimulate T production by Leydig cells. Thus, it could be hypothesized that hCG expression in the testis serves as a local backup system to sustain basal T secretion. However, hCG levels in seminal plasma were very low (0.016 - 0.578 ng/ml in normozoospermic men). During pregnancy, the serum ratios of hCG to the free α and β subunits is usually in the range in 100:1, while in seminal plasma, hCGα is found in 10,000-fold excess (726 - 8754 ng/ml in normozoospermic men) of the holo-hormone.
The molecular function of the free hCGα is still unresolved, and no receptors for the free subunit have yet been described. Free hCGα has been reported to stimulate endometrial stromal cell differentiation synergistically with progesterone . Antisense hCGα RNA reduced the tumorigenic potential of lung cancer cells  and hCGα inhibited growth of prostatic stromal cells . In the male reproductive tract, several sources of free hCGα have been described, in particular the prostate [37–39]. Moreover, significant amounts of hCGα have been detected in seminal vesicle fluid, and minor concentrations in the testis [13, 40]. Herein, we demonstrate that hCGα purified from seminal plasma had the Mr,app of large free hCGα, which is incapable of associating with β-subunits due to larger N-linked sugar chains . Interestingly, the large free α subunit isolated from seminal fluid showed a different glycosylation pattern than large hCGα produced from HEK cells stably transfected with β2AR and stimulated with isoproterenol . While the latter appeared to be more highly glycosylated at Asn52, seminal plasma-derived hCGα appeared to be more highly glycosylated at Asn78. This might reflect distinct molecular functions of large free hCGα variants from different sources due to alternative glycosylation. After total deglycosylation, hCGα derived from seminal plasma, HEK cells and dissociated from the heterodimeric hCG showed identical Mr,app, indicating identical amino acid backbone and genuineness of large free hCGα in seminal plasma as shown by nanospray MS. Thus, due to its unique gylcosylation pattern, free hCGα purified from seminal plasma, where it is normally present in high concentrations and is reduced in men with abnormal semen analysis, represents a promising variant to investigate the unresolved molecular function of the free subunit.
Levels of free hCGα, by far the most abundant hCG variant in seminal plasma, were significantly reduced in men with abnormal semen analyses. Additionally, in men with reduced sperm counts, holo-hCG levels were accordingly lower, indicating a pathophysiological relevance of these hormone variants in spermatogenesis. hCGα in seminal plasma was identified as being a highly glycosylated large free subunit with a unique glycosylation pattern. Alternative glycosylation clearly might modify the function of the hormone subunit, thus free large hCGα purified from seminal plasma represents a promising molecular entity to further investigate the physiological role of free hCGα in spermatogenesis.
Supernatant of HEK293 stably transfected with β2AR was kindly provided by Tommaso Costa (Department of Pharmacology, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy). The manuscript was edited by M. K. Occhipinti-Bender.
- Toulis KA, Iliadou PK, Venetis CA, Tsametis C, Tarlatzis BC, Papadimas I, Goulis DG: Inhibin B and anti-Mullerian hormone as markers of persistent spermatogenesis in men with non-obstructive azoospermia: a meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy studies. Hum Reprod Update. 16 (6): 713-724.Google Scholar
- Asch RH, Fernandez EO, Siler-Khodr TM, Pauerstein CJ: Peptide and steroid hormone concentrations in human seminal plasma. Int J Fertil. 1984, 29 (1): 25-32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Asch RH, Fernandez EO, Siler-Khodr TM, Pauerstein CJ: Presence of a human chorionic gonadotropin--like substance in human sperm. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1979, 135 (8): 1041-1047.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brotherton J: Human chorionic gonadotrophin in human seminal plasma as shown with assays using monoclonal antibodies. Andrologia. 1989, 21 (5): 407-415.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- de Medeiros SF, Amato F, Bacich D, Wang L, Matthews CD, Norman RJ: Distribution of the beta-core human chorionic gonadotrophin fragment in human body fluids. J Endocrinol. 1992, 135 (1): 175-188. 10.1677/joe.0.1350175.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Saito S, Kumamoto Y, Ito N, Kurohata T: Human chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunit in human semen. Arch Androl. 1988, 20 (1): 87-99. 10.3109/01485018808987057.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chan SY, Chan PH, Tang LC, Ho PC, Tang GW: Seminal plasma beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-HCG): relationships with seminal characteristics and spermatozoal fertilizing capacity. Andrologia. 1986, 18 (1): 50-55.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Caroppo E, Niederberger C, Iacovazzi PA, Correale M, Palagiano A, D'Amato G: Human chorionic gonadotropin free beta-subunit in the human seminal plasma: a new marker for spermatogenesis?. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2003, 106 (2): 165-169. 10.1016/S0301-2115(02)00231-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee JN, Lian JD, Lee JH, Chard T: Placental proteins (human chorionic gonadotropin, human placental lactogen, pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein, and placental protein 5) in seminal plasma of normal men and patients with infertility. Fertil Steril. 1983, 39 (5): 704-706.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sturgeon CM, McAllister EJ: Analysis of hCG: clinical applications and assay requirements. Ann Clin Biochem. 1998, 35 (Pt 4): 460-491.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Berger P, Sturgeon C, Bidart JM, Paus E, Gerth R, Niang M, Bristow A, Birken S, Stenman UH: The ISOBM TD-7 Workshop on hCG and related molecules. Towards user-oriented standardization of pregnancy and tumor diagnosis: assignment of epitopes to the three-dimensional structure of diagnostically and commercially relevant monoclonal antibodies directed against human chorionic gonadotropin and derivatives. Tumour Biol. 2002, 23 (1): 1-38. 10.1159/000048686.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Birken S, Berger P, Bidart JM, Weber M, Bristow A, Norman R, Sturgeon C, Stenman UH: Preparation and characterization of new WHO reference reagents for human chorionic gonadotropin and metabolites. Clin Chem. 2003, 49 (1): 144-154. 10.1373/49.1.144.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Berger P, Gruschwitz M, Spoettl G, Dirnhofer S, Madersbacher S, Gerth R, Merz WE, Plas E, Sampson N: Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the male reproductive tract. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007, 260-262: 190-196.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kobata A, Takeuchi M: Structure, pathology and function of the N-linked sugar chains of human chorionic gonadotropin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999, 1455 (2-3): 315-326.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- WHO: Laboratory manual for the examination of human semen and semen-cervical mucus interaction. 1995, Cambridge: Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
- Bronson R, Cooper G, Hjort T, Ing R, Jones WR, Wang SX, Mathur S, Williamson HO, Rust PF, Fudenberg HH, et al: Anti-sperm antibodies, detected by agglutination, immobilization, microcytotoxicity and immunobead-binding assays. J Reprod Immunol. 1985, 8 (4): 279-299. 10.1016/0165-0378(85)90003-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Berger P, Panmoung W, Khaschabi D, Mayregger B, Wick G: Antigenic features of human follicle stimulating hormone delineated by monoclonal antibodies and construction of an immunoradiomometric assay. Endocrinology. 1988, 123 (5): 2351-2359. 10.1210/endo-123-5-2351.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Berger P, Klieber R, Panmoung W, Madersbacher S, Wolf H, Wick G: Monoclonal antibodies against the free subunits of human chorionic gonadotrophin. J Endocrinol. 1990, 125 (2): 301-309. 10.1677/joe.0.1250301.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schwarzler P, Untergasser G, Hermann M, Dirnhofer S, Abendstein B, Berger P: Prolactin gene expression and prolactin protein in premenopausal and postmenopausal human ovaries. Fertil Steril. 1997, 68 (4): 696-701. 10.1016/S0015-0282(97)00320-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Staindl B, Berger P, Kofler R, Wick G: Monoclonal antibodies against human, bovine and rat prolactin: epitope mapping of human prolactin and development of a two-site immunoradiometric assay. J Endocrinol. 1987, 114 (2): 311-318. 10.1677/joe.0.1140311.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Madersbacher S, Kratzik C, Gerth R, Dirnhofer S, Berger P: Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and its free subunits in hydrocele fluids and neoplastic tissue of testicular cancer patients: insights into the in vivo hCG-secretion pattern. Cancer Res. 1994, 54 (19): 5096-5100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Madersbacher S, Stulnig T, Huber LA, Schonitzer D, Dirnhofer S, Wick G, Berger P: Serum glycoprotein hormones and their free alpha-subunit in a healthy elderly population selected according to the SENIEUR protocol. Analyses with ultrasensitive time resolved fluoroimmunoassays. Mech Ageing Dev. 1993, 71 (3): 223-233. 10.1016/0047-6374(93)90086-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dirnhofer S, Lechner O, Madersbacher S, Klieber R, de Leeuw R, Wick G, Berger P: Free alpha subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin: molecular basis of immunologically and biologically active domains. J Endocrinol. 1994, 140 (1): 145-154. 10.1677/joe.0.1400145.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schwarz S, Berger P, Wick G: The antigenic surface of human chorionic gonadotropin as mapped by murine monoclonal antibodies. Endocrinology. 1986, 118 (1): 189-197. 10.1210/endo-118-1-189.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dirnhofer S, Madersbacher S, Bidart JM, Ten Kortenaar PB, Spottl G, Mann K, Wick G, Berger P: The molecular basis for epitopes on the free beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), its carboxyl-terminal peptide and the hCG beta-core fragment. J Endocrinol. 1994, 141 (1): 153-162. 10.1677/joe.0.1410153.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Madersbacher S, Klieber R, Mann K, Marth C, Tabarelli M, Wick G, Berger P: Free alpha-subunit, free beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and intact hCG in sera of healthy individuals and testicular cancer patients. Clin Chem. 1992, 38 (3): 370-376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Madersbacher S, Berger P: Antibodies and immunoassays. Methods. 2000, 21 (1): 41-50. 10.1006/meth.2000.0973.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Casella I, Lindner H, Zenzmaier C, Riitano D, Berger P, Costa T: Non-gonadotropin-releasing hormone-mediated transcription and secretion of large human glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit in human embryonic kidney-293 cells. Endocrinology. 2008, 149 (3): 1144-1154.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Van Zuylen CW, De Beer T, Rademaker GJ, Haverkamp J, Thomas-Oates JE, Hard K, Kamerling JP, Vliegenthart JF: Site-specific and complete enzymic deglycosylation of the native human chorionic gonadotropin alpha-subunit. Eur J Biochem. 1995, 231 (3): 754-760. 10.1111/j.1432-1033.1995.tb20758.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Erbel PJ, Haseley SR, Kamerling JP, Vliegenthart JF: Studies on the relevance of the glycan at Asn-52 of the alpha-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin in the alphabeta dimer. Biochem J. 2002, 364 (Pt 2): 485-495.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Blithe DL: N-linked oligosaccharides on free alpha interfere with its ability to combine with human chorionic gonadotropin-beta subunit. J Biol Chem. 1990, 265 (35): 21951-21956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Merino G, Carranza-Lira S, Martinez-Chequer JC, Barahona E, Moran C, Bermudez JA: Hyperprolactinemia in men with asthenozoospermia, oligozoospermia, or azoospermia. Arch Androl. 1997, 38 (3): 201-206. 10.3109/01485019708994878.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sikaris K, McLachlan RI, Kazlauskas R, de Kretser D, Holden CA, Handelsman DJ: Reproductive hormone reference intervals for healthy fertile young men: evaluation of automated platform assays. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005, 90 (11): 5928-5936. 10.1210/jc.2005-0962.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sokol RZ: Endocrinology of male infertility: evaluation and treatment. Semin Reprod Med. 2009, 27 (2): 149-158. 10.1055/s-0029-1202303.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Moy E, Kimzey LM, Nelson LM, Blithe DL: Glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit functions synergistically with progesterone to stimulate differentiation of cultured human endometrial stromal cells to decidualized cells: a novel role for free alpha-subunit in reproduction. Endocrinology. 1996, 137 (4): 1332-1339. 10.1210/en.137.4.1332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rivera RT, Pasion SG, Wong DT, Fei YB, Biswas DK: Loss of tumorigenic potential by human lung tumor cells in the presence of antisense RNA specific to the ectopically synthesized alpha subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin. J Cell Biol. 1989, 108 (6): 2423-2434. 10.1083/jcb.108.6.2423.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rumpold H, Mascher K, Untergasser G, Plas E, Hermann M, Berger P: Trans-differentiation of prostatic stromal cells leads to decreased glycoprotein hormone alpha production. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002, 87 (11): 5297-5303. 10.1210/jc.2002-020596.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dirnhofer S, Berger C, Hermann M, Steiner G, Madersbacher S, Berger P: Coexpression of gonadotropic hormones and their corresponding FSH- and LH/CG-receptors in the human prostate. Prostate. 1998, 35 (3): 212-220. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0045(19980515)35:3<212::AID-PROS7>3.0.CO;2-I.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fetissof F, Arbeille B, Guilloteau D, Lanson Y: Glycoprotein hormone alpha-chain-immunoreactive endocrine cells in prostate and cloacal-derived tissues. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1987, 111 (9): 836-840.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Berger P, Kranewitter W, Madersbacher S, Gerth R, Geley S, Dirnhofer S: Eutopic production of human chorionic gonadotropin beta (hCG beta) and luteinizing hormone beta (hLH beta) in the human testis. FEBS Lett. 1994, 343 (3): 229-233. 10.1016/0014-5793(94)80561-X.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Toll H, Berger P, Hofmann A, Hildebrandt A, Oberacher H, Lenhof HP, Huber CG: Glycosylation patterns of human chorionic gonadotropin revealed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. Electrophoresis. 2006, 27 (13): 2734-2746. 10.1002/elps.200600022.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stenman UH, Tiitinen A, Alfthan H, Valmu L: The classification, functions and clinical use of different isoforms of HCG. Hum Reprod Update. 2006, 12 (6): 769-784. 10.1093/humupd/dml029.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.