Luyet BJ, Hodapp EL. Revival of Frog’s spermatozoa vitrified in liquid air. Exp Biol Med. 1938;39:433–4.
Polge C, Smith AU, Parkes AS. Revival of spermatozoa after vitrification and dehydration at low temperatures. Nature. 1949;164:666.
Bunge RG, Sherman JK. Fertilizing capacity of frozen human spermatozoa. Nature. 1953;172:767–8.
Perloff WH, Steinberger E, Sherman JK. Conception with human spermatozoa frozen by nitrogen vapor technic. Fertil Steril. 1964;15:501–4.
Sherman JK. Improved methods of preservation of human spermatozoa by freezing and freeze-drying. Fertil Steril. 1963;14:49–64.
Szell AZ, Bierbaum RC, Hazelrigg WB, Chetkowski RJ. Live births from frozen human semen stored for 40 years. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2013;30:743–4.
Kuznyetsov V, Moskovtsev SI, Crowe M, Lulat AG, Librach CL. Vitrification of a small number of spermatozoa in normozoospermic and severely oligozoospermic samples. Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2015;61:13–7.
Isachenko V, Isachenko E, Petrunkina AM, Sanchez R. Human spermatozoa vitrified in the absence of permeable cryoprotectants: birth of two healthy babies. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2012;24:323–6.
Sanchez R, Isachenko V, Petrunkina AM, Risopatron J, Schulz M, Isachenko E. Live birth after intrauterine insemination with spermatozoa from an oligoasthenozoospermic patient vitrified without permeable cryoprotectants. J Androl. 2012;33:559–62 49:1-3.
Medrano L, Enciso M, Gomez-Torres MJ, Aizpurua J. First birth of a healthy infant following intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection using a new permeable cryoprotectant-free sperm vitrification protocol. Cryobiology. 2019;87:117–9.
Jang TH, Park SC, Yang JH, Kim JY, Seok JH, Park US, Choi CW, Lee SR, Han J. Cryopreservation and its clinical applications. Integrative Med Res. 2017;6:12–8.
Hezavehei M, Sharafi M, Kouchesfahani HM, Henkel R, Agarwal A, Esmaeili V, Shahverdi A. Sperm cryopreservation: a review on current molecular cryobiology and advanced approaches. Reprod BioMed Online. 2018;37:327–39.
Lv C, Wu G, Hong Q, Quan G. Spermatozoa cryopreservation: state of art and future in small ruminants. Biopreserv Biobank. 2019;17:171–82.
Paoli D, Lombardo F, Lenzi A, Gandini L. Sperm cryopreservation: effects on chromatin structure. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014;791:137–50.
Isachenko V, Sanchez R, Rahimi G, Mallmann P, Isachenko E, Merzenich M. Cryoprotectant-free vitrification of spermatozoa: fish as a model of human. Andrologia. 2019;51:e13166.
Xin M, Siddique MAM, Dzyuba B, Cuevas-Uribe R, Shaliutina-Kolesova A, Linhart O. Progress and challenges of fish sperm vitrification: a mini review. Theriogenology. 2017;98:16–22.
Reed ML, Said AH, Thompson DJ, Caperton CL. Large-volume vitrification of human biopsied and non-biopsied blastocysts: a simple, robust technique for cryopreservation. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2015;32:207–14.
Isachenko V, Maettner R, Petrunkina AM, Mallmann P, Rahimi G, Sterzik K, Sanchez R, Risopatron J, Damjanoski I, Isachenko E. Cryoprotectant-free vitrification of human spermatozoa in large (up to 0.5 mL) volume: a novel technology. Clin Lab. 2011a;57:643–50.
Isachenko E, Rahimi G, Mallmann P, Sanchez R, Isachenko V. Novel approaches to the cryopreservation of human spermatozoa: history and development of the spermatozoa Vitrification technology. J Reprod Stem Cell Biotechnol. 2011b;2:128–45.
Slabbert M, du Plessis SS, Huyser C. Large volume cryoprotectant-free vitrification: an alternative to conventional cryopreservation for human spermatozoa. Andrologia. 2015;47:594–9.
Saritha KR, Bongso A. Comparative evaluation of fresh and washed human sperm cryopreserved in vapor and liquid phases of liquid nitrogen. J Androl. 2001;22:857–62.
Nawroth F, Isachenko V, Dessole S, Rahimi G, Farina M, Vargiu N, Mallmann P, Dattena M, Capobianco G, Peters D, Orth I, Isachenko E. Vitrification of human spermatozoa without cryoprotectants. Cryo Lett. 2002;23:93–102.
Chang HJ, Lee JR, Chae SJ, Jee BC, Suh CS, Kim SH. Comparative study of two cryopreservation methods of human spermatozoa: vitrification versus slow freezing. Fertil Steril. 2008;90:S280.
Vutyavanich T, Piromlertamorn W, Nunta S. Rapid freezing versus slow programmable freezing of human spermatozoa. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:1921–8.
Moskovtsev SI, Lulat GM, Librach CL. Cryopreservation of human spermatozoa by vitrification vs. slow freezing: Canadian experience. Curr Front Cryobiol. 2012:77–100.
Agha-Rahimi A, Khalili MA, Nabi A, Ashourzadeh S. Vitrification is not superior to rapid freezing of normozoospermic spermatozoa: effects on sperm parameters, DNA fragmentation and hyaluronan binding. Reprod BioMed Online. 2014;28:352–8.
Zhu J, Jin RT, Wu LM, Johansson L, Guo TH, Liu YS, Tong XH. Cryoprotectant-free ultra-rapid freezing of human spermatozoa in cryogenic vials. Andrologia. 2014;46:642–9.
Ali Mohamed MS. Slow cryopreservation is not superior to vitrification in human spermatozoa; an experimental controlled study. Iran J Reprod Med. 2015;13:633–44.
Tongdee P, Sukprasert M, Satirapod C, Wongkularb A, Choktanasiri W. Comparison of cryopreserved human sperm between ultra rapid freezing and slow programmable freezing: effect on motility, morphology and DNA integrity. J Med Assoc Thailand. 2015;98:S33–42.
Aizpurua J, Medrano L, Enciso M, Sarasa J, Romero A, Fernandez MA, Gomez-Torres MJ. New permeable cryoprotectant-free vitrification method for native human sperm. Hum Reprod. 2017;32:2007–15.
Karthikeyan M, Arakkal D, Mangalaraj AM, Kamath MS. Comparison of conventional slow freeze versus permeable cryoprotectant-free vitrification of abnormal semen sample: a randomized controlled trial. J Human Reprod Sci. 2019;12:150–5.
Le MT, Nguyen TTT, Nguyen TT, Nguyen VT, Nguyen TTA, Nguyen VQH, Cao NT. Cryopreservation of human spermatozoa by vitrification versus conventional rapid freezing: effects on motility, viability, morphology and cellular defects. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2019;234:14–20.
Pabon D, Meseguer M, Sevillano G, Cobo A, Romero JL, Remohi J, de Los SMJ. A new system of sperm cryopreservation: evaluation of survival, motility, DNA oxidation, and mitochondrial activity. Andrology. 2019;7:293–301.
Spis E, Bushkovskaia A, Isachenko E, Todorov P, Sanchez R, Skopets V, Isachenko V. Conventional freezing vs. cryoprotectant-free vitrification of epididymal (MESA) and testicular (TESE) spermatozoa: three live births. Cryobiology. 2019;90:100–2.
Li YX, Zhou L, Lv MQ, Ge P, Liu YC, Zhou DX. Vitrification and conventional freezing methods in sperm cryopreservation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2019;233:84–92.
Oldenhof H, Gojowsky M, Wang S, Henke S, Yu C, Rohn K, Wolkers WF, Sieme H. Osmotic stress and membrane phase changes during freezing of stallion sperm: mode of action of cryoprotective agents. Biol Reprod. 2013;88:68.
Schulz M, Risopatron J, Matus G, Pineda E, Rojas C, Isachenko V, Isachenko E, Sanchez R. Trehalose sustains a higher post-thaw sperm motility than sucrose in vitrified human sperm. Andrologia. 2017;49:1–3.
Merino O, Aguaguina WE, Esponda P, Risopatron J, Isachenko E, Isachenko V, Sanchez R. Protective effect of butylated hydroxytoluene on sperm function in human spermatozoa cryopreserved by vitrification technique. Andrologia. 2015;47:186–93.
Cohen J, Garrisi GJ, Congedo-Ferrara TA, Kieck KA, Schimmel TW, Scott RT. Cryopreservation of single human spermatozoa. Hum Reprod. 1997;12:994–1001.
Endo Y, Fujii Y, Shintani K, Seo M, Motoyama H, Funahashi H. Simple vitrification for small numbers of human spermatozoa. Reprod BioMed Online. 2012;24:301–7.
Herrler A, Eisner S, Bach V, Weissenborn U, Beier HM. Cryopreservation of spermatozoa in alginic acid capsules. Fertil Steril. 2006;85:208–13.
Stein A, Shufaro Y, Hadar S, Fisch B, Pinkas H. Successful use of the Cryolock device for cryopreservation of scarce human ejaculate and testicular spermatozoa. Andrology. 2015;3:220–4.
Hu E, Childress W, Tiersch TR. 3-D printing provides a novel approach for standardization and reproducibility of freezing devices. Cryobiology. 2017;76:34–40.
Cobo A, Domingo J, Perez S, Crespo J, Remohi J, Pellicer A. Vitrification: an effective new approach to oocyte banking and preserving fertility in cancer patients. Clin Transl Oncol. 2008;10:268–73.
Kuwayama M, Vajta G, Ieda S, Kato O. Comparison of open and closed methods for vitrification of human embryos and the elimination of potential contamination. Reprod BioMed Online. 2005;11:608–14.
Hosseini A, Khalili MA, Talebi AR, Agha-Rahimi A, Ghasemi-Esmailabad S, Woodward B, Yari N. Cryopreservation of low number of human spermatozoa; which is better: vapor phase or direct submerging in liquid nitrogen? Hum Fertil. 2019;22:126–32.
Liu F, Zou SS, Zhu Y, Sun C, Liu YF, Wang SS, Shi WB, Zhu JJ, Huang YH, Li Z. A novel micro-straw for cryopreservation of small number of human spermatozoon. Asian J Androl. 2017;19:326–9.
Berkovitz A, Miller N, Silberman M, Belenky M, Itsykson P. A novel solution for freezing small numbers of spermatozoa using a sperm vitrification device. Hum Reprod. 2018;33:1975–83.
Paffoni A, Palini S. There is another new method for cryopreserving small numbers of human sperm cells. Ann Transl Med. 2019;7(Suppl 1):1–4.
Isachenko V, Rahimi G, Mallmann P, Sanchez R, Isachenko E. Technologies of cryoprotectant-free vitrification of human spermatozoa: asepticity as criterion of effectiveness. Andrology. 2017;5:1055–63.
Isachenko V, Isachenko E, Katkov II, Montag M, Dessole S, Nawroth F, Van Der Ven H. Cryoprotectant-free cryopreservation of human spermatozoa by vitrification and freezing in vapor: effect on motility, DNA integrity, and fertilization ability. Biol Reprod. 2004;71:1167–73.
Sanchez R, Fontecilla J, Isachenko E, Mora B, Isachenko V, Cabrillana ME. Temperatures in the devitrification process is essential for preserved morphological membrane integrity and sperm function in human spermatozoon. Fertil Steril. 2013;100:S183.
Mansilla MA, Merino O, Risopatron J, Isachenko V, Isachenko E, Sanchez R. High temperature is essential for preserved human sperm function during the devitrification process. Andrologia. 2016;48:111–3.
Bielanski A. A review of the risk of contamination of semen and embryos during cryopreservation and measures to limit cross-contamination during banking to prevent disease transmission in ET practices. Theriogenology. 2012;77:467–82.
Bielanski A. Biosafety in embryos and semen cryopreservation, storage, management and transport. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014;753:429–65.
Bielanski A, Nadin-Davis S, Sapp T, Lutze-Wallace C. Viral contamination of embryos cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. Cryobiology. 2000;40:110–6.
Morris GJ. The origin, ultrastructure, and microbiology of the sediment accumulating in liquid nitrogen storage vessels. Cryobiology. 2005;50:231–8.
Joaquim DC, Borges ED, Viana IGR, Navarro PA, Vireque AA. Risk of contamination of gametes and embryos during cryopreservation and measures to prevent cross-contamination. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:1840417.
Harrison AP Jr. Survival of bacteria upon repeated freezing and thawing. J Bacteriol. 1955;70:711–7115.
Piasecka-Serafin M. The effect of the sediment accumulated in containers under experimental conditions on the infection of semen stored directly in liquid nitrogen (−196 degree C). Bull Acad Pol Sci Biol. 1972;20:263–7.
Schafer TW, Everett J, Silver GH, Came PE. Biohazard: virus-contaminated liquid nitrogen. Science. 1976;191:24–6.
Tedder RS, Zuckerman MA, Goldstone AH, Hawkins AE, Fielding A, Briggs EM, Irwin D, Blair S, Gorman AM, Patterson KG, et al. Hepatitis B transmission from contaminated cryopreservation tank. Lancet. 1995;346:137–40.
Cobo A, Bellver J, de los Santos MJ, Remohi J. Viral screening of spent culture media and liquid nitrogen samples of oocytes and embryos from hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus chronically infected women undergoing in vitro fertilization cycles. Fertil Steril. 2012;97:74–8.
Molina I, Mari M, Martinez JV, Novella-Maestre E, Pellicer N, Peman J. Bacterial and fungal contamination risks in human oocyte and embryo cryopreservation: open versus closed vitrification systems. Fertil Steril. 2016;106:127–32.
Mansuy JM, Dutertre M, Mengelle C, Fourcade C, Marchou B, Delobel P, Izopet J, Martin-Blondel G. Zika virus: high infectious viral load in semen, a new sexually transmitted pathogen? Lancet Infect Dis. 2016;16:405.
Nicastri E, Castilletti C, Liuzzi G, Iannetta M, Capobianchi MR, Ippolito G. Persistent detection of Zika virus RNA in semen for six months after symptom onset in a traveller returning from Haiti to Italy, February 2016. Euro Surveill. 2016;21:30314.
Schiewe MC, Freeman M, Whitney JB, VerMilyea MD, Jones A, Aguirre M, Leisinger C, Adaniya G, Synder N, Chilton R, Behnke EJ. Comprehensive assessment of cryogenic storage risk and quality management concerns: best practice guidelines for ART labs. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2019;36:5–14.
McBurnie LD, Bardo B. Validation of sterile filtration of liquid nitrogen. Pharm Technol. 2002:74–82.
Arav A, Natan Y, Levi-Setti PE, Menduni F, Patrizio P. New methods for cooling and storing oocytes and embryos in a clean environment of −196 degrees C. Reprod BioMed Online. 2016;33:71–8.
Hu J, Zhao S, Xu C, Zhang L, Lu S, Cui L, Ma J, Chen ZJ. Liquid nitrogen vapor is comparable to liquid nitrogen for storage of cryopreserved human sperm: evidence from the characteristics of post-thaw human sperm. Fertil Steril. 2015;104(1253–1257):e1251–2.
Diaz-Jimenez M, Dorado J, Pereira B, Ortiz I, Consuegra C, Bottrel M, Ortiz E, Hidalgo M. Vitrification in straws conserves motility features better than spheres in donkey sperm. Reprod Domest Anim. 2018;53(Suppl 2):56–8.
Kuleshova LL, Shaw JM. A strategy for rapid cooling of mouse embryos within a double straw to eliminate the risk of contamination during storage in liquid nitrogen. Hum Reprod. 2000;15:2604–9.
Perez O, Guerrero CA, Ferguson T, Douglas J, Rodriguez A, Hammitt D. Simplified closed double-straw system for oocyte, embryo and blastocyst vitrification. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:S105–6.
De Munck N, Santos-Ribeiro S, Stoop D, Van de Velde H, Verheyen G. Open versus closed oocyte vitrification in an oocyte donation programme: a prospective randomized sibling oocyte study. Hum Reprod. 2016;31:377–84.
Parmegiani L, Accorsi A, Bernardi S, Arnone A, Cognigni GE, Filicori M. A reliable procedure for decontamination before thawing of human specimens cryostored in liquid nitrogen: three washes with sterile liquid nitrogen (SLN2). Fertil Steril. 2012;98:870–5.
Vajta G, Rienzi L, Ubaldi FM. Open versus closed systems for vitrification of human oocytes and embryos. Reprod BioMed Online. 2015;30:325–33.
Chen Y, Zheng X, Yan J, Qiao J, Liu P. Neonatal outcomes after the transfer of vitrified blastocysts: closed versus open vitrification system. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2013;11:107.
Parmegiani L, Cognigni GE, Filicori M. Ultra-violet sterilization of liquid nitrogen prior to vitrification. Hum Reprod. 2009;24:2969.
Lahon A, Arya RP, Kneubehl AR, Vogt MB, Dailey Garnes NJ, Rico-Hesse R. Characterization of a Zika virus isolate from Colombia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016;10:e0005019.
Parmegiani L, Cognigni GE, Bernardi S, Cuomo S, Ciampaglia W, Infante FE, Tabarelli de Fatis C, Arnone A, Maccarini AChChang HJ,ang HJ,M, Filicori M. Efficiency of aseptic open vitrification and hermetical cryostorage of human oocytes. Reprod BioMed Online. 2011;23:505–12.
Rozati H, Handley T, Jayasena CN. Process and pitfalls of sperm cryopreservation. J Clin Med. 2017;6:1–13.
Heo YS, Nagrath S, Moore AL, Zeinali M, Irimia D, Stott SL, Toth TL, Toner M. “universal” vitrification of cells by ultra-fast cooling. Technology. 2015;3:64–71.