- Open Access
Blood soluble interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein levels are consistently low throughout the menstrual cycle of women with endometriosis
© Michaud et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 4 April 2014
Accepted: 10 June 2014
Published: 16 June 2014
A deficiency in the counter-regulatory mechanisms of interleukin 1 (IL1) may play a significant role in endometriosis pathogenesis and associated chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate peripheral blood levels of soluble IL1 receptor accessory protein (sIL1RAP), a potent natural inhibitor of IL1, in women with and without endometriosis.
Peripheral blood samples were collected from women with endometriosis (n = 47) consulting for infertility, pelvic pain or tubal ligation, in whom the disease was diagnosed at laparoscopy. Control healthy women (n = 27) were requesting tubal ligation or reanastomosis and had no visible evidence of endometriosis at laparoscopy. sIL1RAP levels were determined by ELISA, whereas estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) levels were determined by competitive immunoassays.
sIL1RAP levels were significantly decreased in women with early endometriosis stages compared to controls (p < 0.05) and markedly during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle (p < 0.001). Actually, while sIL1RAP were significantly increased in the proliferative compared to the secretory phase in normal women (p < 0.0001) and peaked at the end of this phase, sIL1RAP remained consistently low and showed non-significant variations throughout the menstrual cycle in women with endometriosis.
Lower circulating levels of sIL1RAP points to a significant impairment in the counter-regulatory mechanisms of IL1, which in view of the cytokine’s potent inflammatory and growth-promoting properties may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of endometriosis.
Endometriosis is one of the most frequent gynaecological diseases in reproductive age women. A one in ten woman suffers from endometriosis in North America. Defined as an ectopic growth of endometrial tissue, endometriosis is frequently associated pelvic pain and infertility (30-40%)  and a chronic pelvic inflammation .
Cumulative evidence clearly points to a significant role for immune factors in endometriosis development. Inflammation is a major hallmark of endometriosis, but the underlying mechanisms are not clearly elucidated. Local immune surveillance appears to be deficient in women with endometriosis and immune cells seem to paradoxically favor ectopic endometrial cell growth via different mechanisms that include secretion of inflammatory, angiogenic and growth mediators such as monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), interleukin 1 (IL1), IL8, and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) . These contribute to endometriosis-associated chronic peritoneal inflammation, but also to endometrial cell survival, attachment to the peritoneal tissue, invasion, proliferation and activation of the host angiogenic responses . Endometriotic implants are likely to stimulate leukocyte recruitment and activation, and endometrial dysfunctions may contribute to the activation of peritoneal immune cells and exacerbate the inflammatory reaction via cyclical reflux of menstrual debris into the peritoneal cavity [3–7].
Nevertheless, alterations in immune functions observed in patients having endometriosis are not restricted to the peritoneal cavity, where the disease is frequently found. Systemic alterations including increased levels of cytokines , reduced cytotoxic effects of lymphocytes on autologous endometrial cells and increased activation of peripheral blood monocytes [9, 10] were reported. These cells also appeared to stimulate endometrial cell growth in vitro[9, 11].
Our and other previous studies found reduced concentrations of sIL1R2 in the peripheral blood of women with endometriosis [12, 13]. This decoy receptor is a potent natural inhibitor of IL1 , which suggests an impairment in IL1 surveillance and counter-regulatory mechanisms in women with endometriosis at the systemic level. IL1 activates cells via its receptor type 1 (IL1R1) and the involvement of membrane-bound receptor accessory protein (mIL1RAP) . However, a soluble form of IL1RAP (sIL1RAP), which results from alternative splicing rather than form proteolytic cleavage of the membrane-bound receptor extracellular domain, has been described. sIL1RAP was detected in human serum and appeared to play an important role in the counter-regulation of IL1 effects by increasing the affinity of IL1 binding to sIL1R2 .
Our subsequent studies showed that sIL1RAP levels were significantly decreased in the endometrium and peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis [17, 18]. The aim of this study was then to evaluate sIL1RAP concentrations in sera of endometriosis patients and investigate the influence of endometriosis stage and main symptoms (pain and infertility) and the menstrual cycle phase
Clinical characteristics of patients at the time of laparoscopy
No. of patients
Age (yr) (mean ± SD)
36.2 ± 5.6
31.9 ± 4.3
32.1 ± 4.6
31.0 ± 2.8
33.0 ± 5.2
31.7 ± 4.0
31.8 ± 4.4
31.9 ± 3.8
34.3 ± 6.4
30.9 ± 4.5
37.8 ± 4.7
32.5 ± 4.0
Collection and processing of blood samples
Blood was collected in sterile tubes containing ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA), immediately centrifuged at 2,000 g for 10 minutes at 4°C, and the serum aliquoted and stored at −80°C until assay. For hormonal assays, blood was collected in redtop tubes and sent to the biochemistry laboratory for current steroid determination.
IL1RAP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
Soluble IL1RAP concentrations in sera were measured by an ELISA procedure designed in our laboratory. Ninety-six-well microtiter plates (Corning Incorporated Life Sciences, Lowell, MA, USA) were coated overnight at 4°C with anti-hIL1RAP polyclonal antibody [0.71 μg/mL in phosphate buffered saline (PBS)] (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN, USA). Wells were washed with PBS containing 0.1% Tween-20 (PBS-Tween) and incubated for 1 h at 37°C with PBS containing 3% bovine serum albumin (BSA) (PBS-BSA). Samples and shIL1RAP (R&D Systems) were diluted in PBS-BSA, added to wells and incubated successively with biotinylated anti-shIL1RAP polyclonal antibody (0.01 μg/mL in PBS-BSA) (R&D Systems) for 1 h at 37°C, peroxidase-labeled streptavidin HRP-peroxidase (1 μg/mL in PBS-BSA) (Jackson ImmunoResearch Laboratories, West Grove, PA) for 45 min at 37°C and finally with TMB (3,3′, 5,5′,-tetramethylbenzidine) (Bio-Rad Laboratories Ltd, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada) as peroxidase substrate for 5 min at room temperature. The reaction was then stopped with 2 N sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and the optical density (OD) determined at 450 nm. sIL1RAP concentrations were calculated by interpolation from standard curves using shIL1RAP (R&D Systems) at concentrations varying between 2 and 128 ng/mL and showing a sensitivity limit of approximately 0.4 ng/mL. Measurements were performed in duplicate. All samples were assessed at the same time to prevent any possible changes due to freezing and thawing. The inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation for the sIL1RAP assay were 5.8% and 8.0%, respectively.
E2and P4 assays
Serum E2 and P4 were measured by competitive immunoassays based on antibody-coated tubes (commercial kits, Coat-A-Count; Diagnostic Products Corp., Los Angeles, CA). The intra-assay coefficients of variation measured at low, medium, and high levels of the standard curves were between 1.8% and 8.0% for all the immunoassays. The inter-assay coefficients of variation were less than 8.0% for E2 and 10% for P4.
sIL1RAP concentrations followed a Gaussian distribution and were statistically analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Bonferroni’s test for post hoc for multiple comparisons. Comparison of 2 groups was performed using the unpaired t test (Prism 3.0, GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA, USA). Differences were considered as statistically significant at p < 0.05. The statistical power was calculated online using a Statistical Power Calculator with a two-sided α level of 0.05 (https://www.dssresearch.com/KnowledgeCenter/toolkitcalculators/statisticalpowercalculators).
E2 and P4 levels in sera of patients
No. of patients
E2 (pmol/L) (mean ± SEM)
P4 (nmol/L) (mean ± SEM)
300.8 ± 65.4
5.8 ± 2.4
268.3 ± 39.6
2.3 ± 0.3
375.7 ± 74.1
17.6 ± 4.1
485.1 ± 57.6
26. 2 ± 3.8
In the present study, we found that sIL1RAP levels were not significantly altered in the peripheral blood of women with endometriosis; only a slight diminution was observed compared to normal women. Our data did not point to any noticeable relationship with endometriosis-related infertility or pelvic pain, as sIL1RAP levels were comparable in fertile and infertile women with endometriosis and in those who have or not pelvic pain. However, data analysis according to endometriosis stage revealed a statistically significant decrease in the earliest stages of the disease. The number of EIII/IV patients included in this study was too small to draw a definite conclusion on sIL1RAP relationship with advanced endometriosis stages. Nevertheless, our findings are consistent with the available literature showing that endometriosis is biochemically more active in the early stages. Actually, it is quite believed that endometriotic lesion types represent distinctive steps in the evolutionary process of the disease and that initial and highly active, vascularized and inflammatory red lesions display an increased expression of pro-inflammatory, angiogenic and tissue remodelling factors such as nuclear factor (NF)-kB, IL1R1, MIF, vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) and prostaglandins (PGs) [21–25].
Analysis of sIL1RAP concentrations according to the menstrual cycle further revealed a significant decrease during the proliferative phase in women with endometriosis compared to controls, and precisely at the end of this phase; a phenomenon that was not observed during the secretory phase. Actually, sIL1RAP levels were significantly lower in the proliferative than in the secretory phase in normal healthy controls, whereas in women with endometriosis they showed no significant cycle-dependent variations and remained low throughout the menstrual cycle. Analysis of E2 and P4 levels in the peripheral blood sera of the same women did not reveal any significant endometriosis-related changes, nor did it identify a significant correlation with sIL1RAP levels, which rules out their involvement in the regulation of sIL1RAP levels in the peripheral blood. The decrease in circulating sIL1RAP levels remains unexplained and so are the source(s) of sIL1RAP secretion. sIL1RAP was detected in human serum , but it is unknown whether immune blood cells, the predominant cell population in the peripheral blood, could be responsible for sIL1RAP production. Furthermore, immune cell dysfunctions have been described in sera of patients with endometriosis and could explain this phenomenon [3, 7–9, 26, 27]. However, we cannot completely rule out an eventual endometrial origin since our previous study showed that human endometrium is capable of producing sIL1RAP . Considering that the endometrium is a highly vascularized tissue, a decrease in the secretion of endometrial sIL1R3 could, at least partly, explain our current results. It would however be interesting to evaluate the production of sIL1R3 in immune blood cells of women with and without endometriosis.
Our findings may have a significant relevance for endometriosis pathophysiology. Actually, sIL1RAP is a major specific inhibitor of IL1. Unlike the constitutive membrane-bound form of IL1RAP, which is necessary for IL1-mediatd cell activation via the functional activating IL1R1, sIL1RAP potentiates IL1 affinity for the decoy inhibitory IL1R2 and plays thereby a significant role in the down-regulation of the cytokine’s pro-inflammatory effects [14, 16, 28]. IL1 A and B forms were detected in the peripheral blood, but their increased concentrations in women with endometriosis reported by some studies were not corroborated by other studies [12, 13, 29]. However, the significant decline in serum sIL1RAP levels in endometriosis stages I-II shown in the current study together with the reduced concentration of sIL1R2 shown by our and other previous studies, particularly in stages I-II as well [12, 13], clearly point to a significant deficiency in the specific regulatory mechanisms of IL1 at the systemic level in the earliest stages of the disease. Endometriosis-associated immune and inflammatory changes were mainly located within the peritoneal cavity of endometriosis patients, where the disease frequently develops, and especially within endometriotic lesions where immune cell infiltration and endometriotic cell activation and expression of inflammatory, tissue remodelling and growth factors were reported [2, 8, 30–32]. However, although relatively less obvious, intrauterine and even systemic immune-inflammatory changes, such as increased activation of monocytes and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, have also been observed in women with endometriosis [3, 7–9, 26, 27].
sIL1RAP was found to be down-regulated in eutopic endometrial tissue of women with endometriosis and a significant decline in the concentration of this molecule was found in the peritoneal fluid as well . This, considering the pro-inflammatory, angiogenic and growth promoting properties of IL1 [14, 34–36] and its increased production in endometriotic tissue , suggests that a combination of local and systemic deficiency in sIL1RAP may lead to an increased endometriotic cell activation by IL1 and contribute to the promotion of the ectopic growth and development of these cells. It is noteworthy that because of its potent anti-inflammatory properties, IL1RAcP has been shown to ameliorate collagen-induced arthritis in vivo using a collagen-induced-arthritis mouse model [28, 37]. In fact, its ability to interact with IL1 seems to play a substantial role in the regulation of inflammation since it has been approved for therapeutic use as an IL1 trap fusion protein . Therefore, it would be of interest to evaluate sIL1RAcP efficacy as a potential treatment of endometriosis using mouse models.
Our study showed for the first time a cycle phase dependency for sIL1RAP levels in the peripheral blood of normal healthy women, which peak in the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle, but instead showed non-significant variations throughout the menstrual of women with endometriosis. Lower circulating levels of sIL1RAP may, in combination a deficiency in sIL1RAP expression in eutopic endometrium and a reduction in its peritoneal fluid concentrations, be relevant to endometriosis pathophysiology as it points to a significant lack in the counter-regulatory mechanisms of IL1-mediated inflammation, tissue remodelling and cell growth. The source(s) of sIL1RAP deficiency in the peripheral blood and the involved regulatory pathways need to be investigated.
The authors wish to thank Drs Sylvie Bazin, Pierre Blanchet, Marleen Daris, Karine Girard, Julie Guillemette, Mathieu Leboeuf, Madeleine Lemyre, Isabelle Lévesque, Jacques Mailloux and Marie-Christine Roy for patient evaluation and providing peripheral blood samples and Nathalie Bourcier, Amélie Bourdiec, Madeleine Desaulniers for technical assistance. This study was supported by grant MOP-93716 to Ali Akoum from the Canadian Institutes for Health Research. A.A. is a “Chercheur-Boursier National” of the “Fonds de la Recherche du Québec-Santé (FRQ-S)”.
- Giudice LC: Clinical practice. Endometriosis N Engl J Med. 2010, 362: 2389-2398. 10.1056/NEJMcp1000274.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lousse JC, Langendonckt AV, Defrere S, Ramos RG, Colette S, Donnez J: Peritoneal endometriosis is an inflammatory disease. Front Biosci. 2012, 4: 23-40.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Khoufache K, Michaud N, Harir N, Kibangou Bondza P, Akoum A: Anomalies in the inflammatory response in endometriosis and possible consequences: a review. Minerva Endocrinol. 2012, 37: 75-92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Akoum A, Lemay A, Brunet C, Hebert J: Cytokine-induced secretion of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 by human endometriotic cells in culture: the groupe d’investigation en gynecologie. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995, 172: 594-600. 10.1016/0002-9378(95)90578-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tseng JF, Ryan IP, Milam TD, Murai JT, Schriock ED, Landers DV, Taylor RN: Interleukin-6 secretion in vitro is up-regulated in ectopic and eutopic endometrial stromal cells from women with endometriosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996, 81: 1118-1122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Halme J, Becker S, Wing R: Accentuated cyclic activation of peritoneal macrophages in patients with endometriosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1984, 148: 85-90. 10.1016/S0002-9378(84)80037-X.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kobayashi H, Uekuri C, Shigetomi H: Towards an understanding of the molecular mechanism of endometriosis: unbalancing epithelial-stromal genetic conflict. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2014, 30: 7-15. 10.3109/09513590.2013.831832.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Borrelli GM, Abrao MS, Mechsner S: Can chemokines be used as biomarkers for endometriosis? A systematic review. Hum Reprod. 2014, 29: 253-266. 10.1093/humrep/det401.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Braun DP, Gebel H, House R, Rana N, Dmowski NP: Spontaneous and induced synthesis of cytokines by peripheral blood monocytes in patients with endometriosis. Fertil Steril. 1996, 65: 1125-1129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dmowski WP, Steele RW, Baker GF: Deficient cellular immunity in endometriosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1981, 141: 377-383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Braun DP, Muriana A, Gebel H, Rotman C, Rana N, Dmowski WP: Monocyte-mediated enhancement of endometrial cell proliferation in women with endometriosis. Fertil Steril. 1994, 61: 78-84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kharfi A, Akoum A: Soluble interleukin-1 receptor type II blocks monocyte chemotactic protein-1 secretion by U937 cells in response to peripheral blood serum of women with endometriosis. Fertil Steril. 2002, 78: 836-842. 10.1016/S0015-0282(02)03335-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kondera-Anasz Z, Sikora J, Mielczarek-Palacz A, Jonca M: Concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1 soluble receptor type II (IL-1 sRII) and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 Ra) in the peritoneal fluid and serum of infertile women with endometriosis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2005, 123: 198-203. 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2005.04.019.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sims JE, Smith DE: The IL-1 family: regulators of immunity. Nat Rev Immunol. 2010, 10: 89-102.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gabay C, Lamacchia C, Palmer G: IL-1 pathways in inflammation and human diseases. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2010, 6: 232-241.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Smith DE, Hanna R, Della F, Moore H, Chen H, Farese AM, MacVittie TJ, Virca GD, Sims JE: The soluble form of IL-1 receptor accessory protein enhances the ability of soluble type II IL-1 receptor to inhibit IL-1 action. Immunity. 2003, 18: 87-96. 10.1016/S1074-7613(02)00514-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Michaud N, Al-Akoum M, Gagnon G, Girard K, Blanchet P, Rousseau JA, Akoum A: Decreased concentrations of soluble interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein levels in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis. J Reprod Immunol. 2011, 92: 68-73. 10.1016/j.jri.2011.08.001.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guay S, Michaud N, Bourcier N, Leboeuf M, Lemyre M, Mailloux J, Akoum A: Distinct expression of the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein in the endometrium of women with endometriosis. Fertil Steril. 2011, 95: 1284-1290. 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2010.12.056.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Revised American society for reproductive medicine classification of endometriosis: 1996. Fertil Steril. 1997, 67: 817-821. 10.1016/S0015-0282(97)81391-X.Google Scholar
- Noyes RW, Hertig AT, Rock J: Dating the endometrial biopsy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1975, 122: 262-263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vernon MW, Beard JS, Graves K, Wilson EA: Classification of endometriotic implants by morphologic appearance and capacity to synthesize prostaglandin F. Fertil Steril. 1986, 46: 801-806.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kokorine I, Nisolle M, Donnez J, Eeckhout Y, Courtoy PJ, Marbaix E: Expression of interstitial collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase-1) is related to the activity of human endometriotic lesions. Fertil Steril. 1997, 68: 246-251. 10.1016/S0015-0282(97)81510-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kats R, Metz CN, Akoum A: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is markedly expressed in active and early-stage endometriotic lesions. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002, 87: 883-889. 10.1210/jcem.87.2.8260.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lawson C, Al-Akoum M, Maheux R, Akoum A: Increased expression of interleukin-1 receptor type 1 in active endometriotic lesions. Reproduction. 2007, 133: 265-274. 10.1530/rep.1.01121.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gonzalez-Ramos R, Van Langendonckt A, Defrere S, Lousse JC, Colette S, Devoto L, Donnez J: Involvement of the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Fertil Steril. 2010, 94: 1985-1994. 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2010.01.013.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kyama CM, Overbergh L, Debrock S, Valckx D, Vander Perre S, Meuleman C, Mihalyi A, Mwenda JM, Mathieu C, D’Hooghe TM: Increased peritoneal and endometrial gene expression of biologically relevant cytokines and growth factors during the menstrual phase in women with endometriosis. Fertil Steril. 2006, 85: 1667-1675. 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2005.11.060.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kyama CM, Overbergh L, Mihalyi A, Meuleman C, Mwenda JM, Mathieu C, D’Hooghe TM: Endometrial and peritoneal expression of aromatase, cytokines, and adhesion factors in women with endometriosis. Fertil Steril. 2008, 89: 301-310. 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2007.02.057.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Smeets RL, Joosten LA, Arntz OJ, Bennink MB, Takahashi N, Carlsen H, Martin MU, van den Berg WB, van de Loo FA: Soluble interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis by a different mode of action from that of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. Arthritis Rheum. 2005, 52: 2202-2211. 10.1002/art.21108.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Koumantakis E, Matalliotakis I, Neonaki M, Froudarakis G, Georgoulias V: Soluble serum interleukin-2 receptor, interleukin-6 and interleukin-1a in patients with endometriosis and in controls. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 1994, 255: 107-112. 10.1007/BF02390936.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kyama CM, Mihalyi A, Simsa P, Falconer H, Fulop V, Mwenda JM, Peeraer K, Tomassetti C, Meuleman C, D’Hooghe TM: Role of cytokines in the endometrial-peritoneal cross-talk and development of endometriosis. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2009, 1: 444-454.Google Scholar
- Berbic M, Fraser IS: Regulatory T cells and other leukocytes in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. J Reprod Immunol. 2011, 88: 149-155. 10.1016/j.jri.2010.11.004.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Defrere S, Gonzalez-Ramos R, Lousse JC, Colette S, Donnez O, Donnez J, Van Langendonckt A: Insights into iron and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) involvement in chronic inflammatory processes in peritoneal endometriosis. Histol Histopathol. 2011, 26: 1083-1092.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bergqvist A, Bruse C, Carlberg M, Carlstrom K: Interleukin 1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in endometriotic tissue and in endometrium. Fertil Steril. 2001, 75: 489-495. 10.1016/S0015-0282(00)01752-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lebovic DI, Bentzien F, Chao VA, Garrett EN, Meng YG, Taylor RN: Induction of an angiogenic phenotype in endometriotic stromal cell cultures by interleukin-1beta. Mol Hum Reprod. 2000, 6: 269-275. 10.1093/molehr/6.3.269.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Akoum A, Jolicoeur C, Boucher A: Estradiol amplifies interleukin-1-induced monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression by ectopic endometrial cells of women with endometriosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000, 85: 896-904.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Akoum A, Lawson C, McColl S, Villeneuve M: Ectopic endometrial cells express high concentrations of interleukin (IL)-8 in vivo regardless of the menstrual cycle phase and respond to oestradiol by up-regulating IL-1-induced IL-8 expression in vitro. Mol Hum Reprod. 2001, 7: 859-866. 10.1093/molehr/7.9.859.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Smeets RL, van de Loo FA, Joosten LA, Arntz OJ, Bennink MB, Loesberg WA, Dmitriev IP, Curiel DT, Martin MU, van den Berg WB: Effectiveness of the soluble form of the interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein as an inhibitor of interleukin-1 in collagen-induced arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2003, 48: 2949-2958. 10.1002/art.11234.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ratner M: IL-1 trap go-ahead. Nat Biotechnol. 2008, 26: 485-10.1038/nbt0508-485b.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.