Proposed pathways of free ß-subunit and hyperglycosylated hCG in advanced cancer cases. As illustrated, free ß-subunit and hyperglycosylated hCG are hCG variants with exposed TGFß binding structures [1–4, 6], these are autocrines which antagonize the TGFß receptor, promoting cell growth and blocking cell apoptosis. As a result of the antagonism, collagenases and metalloproteinases are produced by cells [94, 95]. As illustrated, cells secrete hCG free ß-subunit or hyperglycosylated hCG. This enters the circulation and rotates around the body. hCG free ß-subunit of hyperglycosylated hCG then bind back on a receptor on the cancer cells, a TGFß receptor, and antagonize this receptor. As a result cell growth is promoted, and cell apoptosis is blocked. Cell secrete collagenases and metalloproteinases.