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Table 3 The risk of perinatal complications categorized by maternal presence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and exposure to metformin

From: Pregnancy, perinatal and childhood outcomes in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome and metformin during pregnancy: a nationwide population-based study

  PCOS(−)
Metformin(−)
PCOS(−)
Metformin(+)
PCOS(+)
Metformin(−)
PCOS(+)
Metformin(+)
PCOS(−)
Metformin(+)
PCOS(+)
Metformin(−)
PCOS(+)
Metformin(+)
PCOS(−)
Metformin(+)
PCOS(+)
Metformin(−)
PCOS(+)
Metformin(+)
Number (%) Crude, OR (95% CI) Adjusted, OR (95% CI)b
994,102 870 21,486 347       
Preterm birth (< 37 w)a
Yes 43,597 (4.4) 91 (10.53) 1344 (6.28) 24 (6.92) 2.56 (2.05–3.19) 1.46 (1.38–1.54) 1.62 (1.07–2.44) 0.98 (0.78–1.24) 1.30 (1.23–1.38) 0.87 (0.56–1.35)
No 947,422 (95.6) 773 (89.47) 20,041 (93.72) 323 (93.08)       
Stillbirth
Yes 3083 (0.31) 6 (0.69) 101 (0.47) 0 (0) 2.23 (1.00–4.98) 1.52 (1.24–1.86) 0.88 (0.39–2.02) 1.30 (1.06–1.59)
No 991,019 (99.69) 864 (99.31) 21,385 (99.53) 347 (100)       
Low birth weight (< 2500 g)
Yes 30,385 (3.06) 33 (3.79) 906 (4.22) 12 (3.46) 1.25 (0.88–1.77) 1.40 (1.30–1.50) 1.14 (0.64–2.02) 0.92 (0.65–1.31) 1.29 (1.20–1.38) 0.87 (0.49–1.57)
No 963,717 (96.94) 837 (96.21) 20,580 (95.78) 335 (96.54)       
Macrosomia (>  4000 g)
Yes 186,133 (18.72) 224 (25.75) 4197 (19.53) 78 (22.48) 1.51 (1.29–1.76) 1.05 (1.02–1.09) 1.26 (0.98–1.63) 0.75 (0.63–0.89) 0.98 (0.94–1.02) 0.86 (0.66–1.13)
No 807,969 (81.28) 646 (74.25) 17,289 (80.47) 269 (77.52)       
Apgar 5 min < 7a
Yes 11,109 (1.12) 16 (1.85) 337 (1.58) 10 (2.88) 1.66 (1.02–2.73) 1.41 (1.27–1.58) 2.62 (1.40–4.91) 0.72 (0.44–1.2) 1.17 (1.05–1.31) 1.37 (0.73–2.55)
No 979,910 (98.88) 848 (98.15) 21,048 (98.42) 337 (97.12)       
SGA
Yes 23,152 (2.33) 17 (1.95) 491 (2.29) 8 (2.31) 0.84 (0.52–1.35) 0.98 (0.89–1.08) 0.99 (0.49–2.00) 0.95 (0.58–1.54) 0.92 (0.84–1.01) 0.90 (0.45–1.82)
No 970,950 (97.67) 853 (98.05) 20,995 (97.71) 339 (97.69)       
LGA
Yes 33,315 (3.35) 125 (14.37) 1000 (4.65) 31 (8.93) 4.84 (3.95–5.93) 1.41 (1.31–1.51) 2.83 (1.94–4.13) 0.54 (0.42–0.69) 1.11 (1.03–1.20) 0.75 (0.45–1.25)
No 960,787 (96.65) 745 (85.63) 20,486 (95.35) 316 (91.07)       
  1. Abbreviations: SGA Small for Gestational Age, LGA Large for Gestational Age, OR Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval
  2. a Birth alive only
  3. b Adjusted by maternal body mass index, maternal age, year of birth, cigarette consumption, assisted reproduction, parity, gestational diabetes, and diabetes mellitus