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Table 2 The risk of pregnancy complications categorized by maternal presence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and exposure to metformin

From: Pregnancy, perinatal and childhood outcomes in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome and metformin during pregnancy: a nationwide population-based study

Outcomes PCOS(−)
Metformin(−)
PCOS(−)
Metformin(+)d
PCOS(+)
Metformin(−)
PCOS(+)
Metformin(+)d
PCOS(−)
Metformin(+)d
PCOS(+)
Metformin(−)
PCOS(+) Metformin(+)d PCOS(−) Metformin(+)d PCOS(+) Metformin(−) PCOS(+) Metformin(+)d
  Number (%) Crude, OR (95% CI) Adjusted, OR (95% CI)e
994,102 870 21,486 347       
C-Sectiona
Yes 164,226 (16.57) 305 (35.3) 4269 (19.96) 94 (27.09) 2.75 (2.38–3.18) 1.26 (1.21–1.29) 1.87 (1.48–2.37) 1.09 (0.93–1.29) 1.08 (1.04–1.12) 1.00 (0.77–1.30)
No 826,793 (83.43) 559 (64.7) 17,116 (80.04) 253 (72.91)       
Acute C-Sectionb
Yes 86,627 (52.75) 155 (50.82) 2367 (55.45) 57 (60.64) 0.93 (0.74–1.16) 1.11 (1.05–1.19) 1.38 (0.91–2.08) 0.88 (0.69–1.13) 0.97 (0.91–1.04) 1.14 (0.75–1.74)
No 77,599 (47.25) 150 (49.18) 1902 (44.55) 37 (39.36)       
  994,102 620 21,486 326 Crude, OR (95% CI) Adjusted, OR (95% CI)1
Preeclampsia
Yes 31,927 (3.21) 51 (8.23) 1002 (4.66) 30 (9.2) 2.70 (2.03–3.59) 1.47 (1.38–1.58) 3.05 (2.09–4.44) 0.71 (0.51–0.97) 1.09 (1.02–1.17) 1.13 (0.75–1.71)
No 962,175 (96.79) 569 (91.77) 20,484 (95.34) 296 (90.8)       
Gestational Diabetesc
Yes 8706 (0.88) 14 (2.26) 420 (1.95) 8 (2.45) 2.61 (1.54–4.44) 2.26 (2.03–2.51) 2.85 (1.41–5.74) 1.15 (0.67–1.96) 1.71 (1.53–1.91) 1.32 (0.66–2.67)
No 985,396 (99.12) 606 (97.74) 21,066 (98.05) 318 (97.55)       
  1. Abbreviations: OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, C-section caesarean section
  2. a Birth alive only
  3. b Only those with C-section, Elective C-section as reference
  4. c Gestational diabetes diagnosed after 24 weeks
  5. d The risk of preeclampsia and gestational diabetes were calculated by considering just women who had at least one prescription of metformin before 24 weeks of pregnancy. Otherwise, at least one prescription during the entire pregnancy applied
  6. eTo calculate the adjusted risk of preeclampsia, caesarean-section and acute C-section, the variables maternal body mass index, maternal age, year of birth, cigarette consumption, assisted reproduction, parity, gestational diabetes, and diabetes mellitus were considered. To calculate the adjusted risk of gestational diabetes, the variables gestational diabetes and diabetes mellitus were excluded from the model