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Table 1 Summary of studies identified in initial search

From: Effects of high-fat diets on fetal growth in rodents: a systematic review

Experimental protocol Effect on fetal growth Calories from fat Total
<  45% 45% >  45% Cafeteria
Rats fed high-fat diet for 3 weeks or more prior to pregnancy Decrease 0 4 2 4 10
   Nivoit et al. (2009) [29]; Hayes et al. (2012) [30]; Christante et al. (2013)b [31]; Reynolds et al. (2014) [32] Couvreur et al. (2011) [33]; Li et al. (2012)b [34] Akyol et al. (2009) [35]; Raipuria et al. (2015) [36]; Ramirez-Lopez et al. (2016) [37]; Sánchez-Blanco et al. (2016) [38]  
No effect 3 2 8 3 16
  Del Prado et al. (1997) [39]; Caluwaerts et al. 2007 [40]; Nitert et al. (2013) [41] Zambrano et al. (2010)b [42]; Vega et al. (2015) b [43] Shaw et al. (1997)b [44]; Srinivasan et al. (2006) [45]; Ferezou-Viala et al. (2007) [46]; Gupta et al. (2009) [47]; Mitra et al. (2009) [48]; White et al. (2009) [49]; Guberman et al. (2013) [50]; Desai et al. (2014) [51] Rolls and Rowe (1982) [52]; Chen et al. (2008) [53]; Ong and Muhlhausler (2011) [54]  
Increase 0 1 2 1 4
   Song et al. (2015) [55] Gaccioli et al. (2013)b [56]; Mazzucco et al. (2013) [57] Yang et al. (2015) [58]  
Rats fed high-fat diet for less than 3 weeks prior to pregnancy Decrease 1 5 0 3 9
  Cerf et al. (2005) [59] Mark et al. (2011) [60]; Smith et al. (2014) [61]; Cordero et al. (2015) [62]; Cunha et al. (2015)b [63]; Segovia et al. (2015) [64]   Bayol et al. (2007) [65]; Zhang et al. (2011) [66]; Gugusheff et al. (2013) [67]  
No effect 2 2 4 2 10
  Martin et al. (1987) [68]; Cerf et al. (2010)a [69] Yang et al. (2012) [70]; Tsoulis et al. (2016) [71] Ebesh et al. (1999) [72]; Walker et al. (2008)b [73]; Lin et al. (2011)b [74]; de Oliveira Andrade et al. (2014) [75] Rolls et al. (1984) [76]; Zhang et al. (2013) [77]  
Increase 4 1 1 1 7
  Cerf et al. (2010)a [69]; Ferro Cavalcante et al. (2013) [78]; Ferro Cavalcante et al. (2014) [79]; Cerf et al. (2015) [80] Strakovsky et al. (2011) [81] de Assis et al. (2006)b [82] Kjaergaard et al. (2014) [83]  
Total number of rat studiesa   9a 15 17 14 55a
Mice fed high-fat diet for 3 weeks or more prior to pregnancy Decrease 1 0 7 0 8
  Mayor et al. (2015) [84]   Niculescu and Lupu (2009) [85]; Bentham et al. (2010)b [86]; King et al. (2013) [87]; King et al. (2013)a [88]; Sasson et al. (2015) [89]; Edlow et al. (2016) [90]; Panchenko et al. (2016) [91]   
No effect 0 2 4 0 6
   Lager et al. (2014)b [92]; Umekawa et al. (2015) [93] Liang et al. (2009) [94]; Bytautiene et al. (2011) [95]; King et al. (2013)a [88]; Murabayashi et al. (2013) [96]   
Increase 2 0 5 0 7
  Aye et al. (2015) [97]; Rosario et al. (2015) [98]   Masuyama and Hiramatsu (2012) [99]; Masuyama and Hiramatsu (2012) [100]; Dahlhoff et al. (2014) [101]; Masuyama and Hiramatsu (2014) [102]; Masuyama et al. (2015) [103]   
Mice fed high-fat diet for less than 3 weeks prior to pregnancy Decrease 1 1 1 0 3
  Sferruzzi-Perri et al. (2013)a [104] Turdi et al. (2013) [105] del Mar Plata et al. (2014) [106]   
No effect 1 2 1 0 4
  Sferruzzi-Perri et al. (2013) a [104] Luijten et al. (2013)b [107]; Benatti et al. (2014) [108] Volpato et al. (2012) [109]   
Increase 0 1 1 0 2
   Ashino et al. (2012) [110] Gregorio et al. (2013) [111]   
Total number of mouse studiesa   4a 6 18a 0 28a
  1. aStudy is listed in the table twice because it included two time points or multiple fat contents with different results. The total number of studies per species counts each study only once
  2. bPercentage of calories from fat was estimated based on energy density of diet, using values from two Research Diets (New Brunswick, NJ) diets (D12451: 45% fat by calories, 4.7 kcal/g, 24% fat by weight, and D12492: 60% fat by calories, 5.21 kcal/g, 35% fat by weight)