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Table 3 Seminal quality in Indian fertile and infertile men over five-year periods

From: Decline in seminal quality in Indian men over the last 37 years

Variables Fertile Infertile Total p value (Fertile vs. Infertile)
n Mean ± SD n Mean ± SD n Mean ± SD
Semen volume (ml):
  ≤ 2001 8 2.74 ± 0.52 2 3.72 ± 1.73 10 2.93 ± 0.84 0.701
 2002–2006 6 2.78 ± 0.42 2 2.50 ± 0.42 8 2.71 ± 0.41 0.896
 2007–2011 23 2.97 ± 0.94 13 3.00 ± 0.56 36 2.98 ± 0.81 0.963
 2012–2016 16 2.86 ± 0.74 5 3.21 ± 2.51 21 2.94 ± 1.30 0.941
Sperm concentration (million/ml):
  ≤ 2001 21 93.39 ± 37.91 4 55.38 ± 43.51 25 87.31 ± 40.45 0.008
 2002–2006 14 81.26 ± 24.73 6 42.43 ± 26.98 20 69.61 ± 30.72* 0.004
 2007–2011 42 73.46 ± 22.80 27 37.05 ± 26.33 69 59.22 ± 29.98** 0.008
 2012–2016 35 82.77 ± 30.20 22 34.65 ± 23.43 57 64.19 ± 36.31* 0.001
Total motility (%):
  ≤ 2001 15 64.20 ± 13.84 2 41.05 ± 6.58 17 61.48 ± 15.15 < 0.001
 2002–2006 12 67.12 ± 11.63 4 39.01 ± 9.39 16 60.09 ± 16.58 < 0.001
 2007–2011 31 68.93 ± 9.48 18 47.93 ± 13.87 49 61.22 ± 15.13 0.003
 2012–2016 31 64.56 ± 10.50 20 33.43 ± 11.62 51 52.35 ± 18.79 < 0.001
Rapid linear progressive motility (%):
  ≤ 2001 4 54.02 ± 17.84 2 45.07 ± 8.58 6 51.04 ± 15.07 0.399
 2002–2006 4 58.31 ± 13.42 2 18.00 ± 21.21 6 44.88 ± 25.13 0.009
 2007–2011 13 57.17 ± 11.28 12 28.46 ± 12.79 25 43.39 ± 18.79 0.065
 2012–2016 9 42.96 ± 19.21 5 19.01 ± 18.06 14 34.41 ± 21.67 0.069
Normal morphology (%):
  ≤ 2001 13 70.29 ± 19.46 4 45.84 ± 14.66 17 64.54 ± 20.94 0.088
 2002–2006 11 56.36 ± 19.08 4 31.28 ± 19.16 15 49.67 ± 21.69 0.054
 2007–2011 16 59.86 ± 19.80 14 47.09 ± 24.55 30 53.90 ± 22.69 0.343
 2012–2016 22 46.49 ± 16.98 13 23.59 ± 13.46 35 37.99 ± 19.18** 0.064
Viability (%):
  ≤ 2001 6 73.71 ± 10.67 3 57.48 ± 10.93 9 68.30 ± 12.92 0.100
 2002–2006 8 69.86 ± 7.96 2 56.90 ± 7.64 10 67.27 ± 9.25 0.154
 2007–2011 9 75.63 ± 8.68 5 54.86 ± 18.17 14 68.21 ± 15.96 0.060
 2012–2016 7 71.02 ± 6.05 4 53.24 ± 8.46 11 64.56 ± 11.13 0.122
  1. Data were expressed as n (number of studies/data sets), Mean ± SD (standard deviation). Groups were compared by ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls test. *p < 0.05 0r **p < 0.01- as compared to ≤2001 (total population)