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Table 1 The role of oxidative stress in the female reproductive process

From: A novel and compact review on the role of oxidative stress in female reproduction

Function Reproductive process Reference
Positive effect Zn-Cu SOD↑ → Promotion of the development of follicles [26]
Biosynthesis of ovarian steroids → P450↑ → ROS↑ → Blood flow↑ → Rupture of follicles → Ovulation [36, 37, 40, 41]
ROS↑ → Promotion apoptosis of non-dominant follicles FSH↑ → E2↑ → CAT and GSH↑ → Protection of cells from apoptosis [38]
E2 and P ↓ → SOD↓ → OS↑ → Endometrial shedding and implant failure [62]
ROS↑ → NF-κB↑ → PGF↑ → Luteum dissolution [35, 39, 61]
Sperm-ovum binding → ROS↑ → Corpus luteus functional↑ ROS↑ → Antioxidants↑ → Synthesis of progesterone [39]
Negative effect PCOS: Serum proline activity↑, OS↑ Physiological hyperglycemia → ROS↑ (Monocytes) → TNF-α↑ → NF-κB↑ → Resistance of Insulin↑ [45, 46]
Preeclampsia: Defective placenta → Hypoxia and reperfusion injury → OS↑ → Cytokines↑, Prostaglandins↑ → TAS↓, GPx of placenta↓ VC↓ → Risk of preeclampsia↑ (MDA↑) ROS↑ → Vasoconstriction↑ → Coagulation activity↓ OS↑ → Vascular endothelial injury↑ → ROS↑ → TNF-α↑, ox-LDL↑ → Endothelial subtypes of activated NAD(P)H oxidase → SO anion↑ Auto-antibodies of AT1-AA↑ → NAD(P)H oxidase↑ → ROS↑ → SO anion↑ [67, 76,77,78,79,80,81, 83,84,85]
Endometriosis: In the peritoneal fluid, MDA↑, IL-6↑,TNF-α↑, IL-8↑, VEGF↑, MCP-1↑, ox-LDL↑. In endometriotic lesions: OS↑ → NF-κB↑ → Inflammation↑ In endometriotic cells: MAPK↑ ROS↑ → IUGR, abortion, fetal malformation [71,72,73, 75]
  1. The ‘→’ indicates that it has an effect on the next step. The ‘↑’ represents an increase and the ‘↓‘represents a decrease