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Table 2 Associations between SSBs and low testosterone levels

From: Sugar-sweetened beverage intake and serum testosterone levels in adult males 20–39 years old in the United States

  Univariate Multivariate
OR (95% CI) p-value aOR (95% CI) p-value
SSBs (kcal/day)
 Q1 (≤137.0) Reference   Reference  
 Q2 (138.0–272.0) 2.12 (0.72,6.28) 0.162 1.96 (0.84,4.59) 0.111
 Q3 (273.0–441.0) 2.26 (0.54,9.45) 0.246 2.20 (0.56,8.70) 0.244
 Q4 (442.0+) 2.78 (1.04,7.45) 0.043* 2.29 (1.04,5.02) 0.041a
 Age 1.06 (0.99,1.12) 0.075 1.04 (0.97,1.12) 0.221
Race
 Non-Hispanic White Reference   Reference  
 Mexican American 0.56 (0.13,2.51) 0.429 0.42 (0.10,1.81) 0.225
 Other Hispanic 1.47 (0.41,5.28) 0.531 1.05 (0.28,3.93) 0.937
 Non-Hispanic Black 0.93 (0.37,2.38) 0.881 0.80 (0.31,2.08) 0.635
 Other race 0.59 (0.25,1.39) 0.207 0.61 (0.26,1.42) 0.233
 Income/poverty ratio 0.87 (0.69,1.10) 0.238 0.89 (0.72,1.10) 0.274
 Serum cotinine (ng/mL) 1.002 (0.9995,1.01) 0.095 1.002 (0.998,1.01) 0.353
BMI
  < 25 kg/m2 Reference   Reference  
  ≥ 25 kg/m2 3.80 (1.12,12.91) 0.034* 3.68 (1.04,13.01) 0.044a
Heavy drinker
 No Reference   Reference  
 Yes 0.35 (0.09,1.37) 0.124 0.40 (0.10,1.63) 0.187
Physical activity
  ≥ 500 MET-min/week Reference   Reference  
  < 500 MET-min/week 1.50 (0.73,3.08) 0.247 1.19 (0.63,2.28) 0.572
  1. Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index (kg/m2); CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio; aOR, adjusted odds ratio; SSBs, sugar-sweetened beverages; MET, metabolic equivalent of task
  2. a Significant factors, p < 0.05.