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Table 3 Effects of tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and drug addiction on hormone levels

From: Smoke, alcohol and drug addiction and male fertility

  Studies in humans Animal studies
Tobacco smoking Increase in liver metabolism of testosterone [24]
Reduction of LH and/or FSH levels [34]
Increase in concentration of LH and/or FSH [35]
Increase in serum testosterone and DHEA levels [35, 37]
Reduction of testosterone levels in rats [45, 46]
Alcohol consumption Decrease in testosterone levels [58, 59]
Increase in FSH, LH, and E2 levels [60]
Decrease in plasma and intra-testicular testosterone in rats [71]
Drug addiction
 Marijuana Decrease in levels of plasma testosterone [78]
Decreased levels of plasma LH, and increased levels of plasma cortisol [81]
Increased serum testosterone [82]
Inhibition of LHRH release in rats [92]
Decrease in testosterone levels in monkeys [93]
 Cocaine Increase in LH levels without modifying testosterone following acute administration [97] Increase in LH levels; No effects on testosterone and estradiol in rats [97]
 Opioids Inhibition of the pulsatility of GnRH secretion; reduction of LH, FSH and testosterone levels [76] Reduction of LH, without effect on FSH and testosterone levels in rats [101]
 Amphetamines and Ecstasy No data available No effects on LH, FSH, Testosterone levels in male rats [99]