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Table 2 Effects of VS and ionomycin treatments on oocyte viability, IVM and early embryo development

From: Osmotic-shock produced by vitrification solutions improves immature human oocytes in vitro maturation

  G2 G4 G5 P -value
IVMR 83.7 % (36/43) 86.1 % (37/43) 48.8 % (↓) (20/41) 0.000
AR 80.6 % (29/36) 86.5 % (32/37) 55.0 % (↓) (11/20) 0.047
DRC 82.8 % (24/29) 87.5 % (28/32) 90.9 % (10/11) 0.765
DRCM 20.7 % (6/29) 37.5 % (12/32) 0.0 % (↓) (0/11) 0.036
DRB 3.5 % (1/29) 12.5 % (4/32) 0.0 % (0/11) 0.235
  1. Group 2 (control group): 43 oocytes vitrified at GV stage warmed and in vitro matured until MII; Group 4 (exposed to VS): 43 GV-oocytes exposed to vitrifying solutions (VS) without the subsequent immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN2) and Group 5 (Chemical treatment): 41 GV-oocytes exposed to 10 μM ionomycin and in vitro matured until MII. In vitro oocyte maturation rate (IVM-R), oocyte activation rate (AR), development rate to 2-cells embryo at day 2 (DRC), development rate to morula at day 4 (DRCM), development rate to blastocyst at day 5 (DRB). (↑), (↓): The arrow indicates the group that is statistically different from the other two in the ratio value. The direction of the arrow indicates the direction of change in the value of the ratio