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Table 1 Patient baseline demographics, cycle characteristics and cycle outcomes of the three groups according to the number of total in vitro fertilization cycles

From: Reproducibility and clinical significance of pre-ovulatory serum progesterone level and progesterone/estradiol ratio on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration in infertile women undergoing repeated in vitro fertilization cycles

Variable Overall 2 cycles 3 cycles ≥ 4 cycles P value
Baseline demographics
 No. of cases (cycles) 203 (524 cycles) 125 (250 cycles) 52 (156 cycles) 26 (118 cycles)  
 Age (years) 34.3 ± 4.7 33.7 ± 4.4 a 33.7 ± 4.9 b 36.3 ± 4.4 ab < 0.001
 Mean interval from 1st to last IVF cycle (months) 19.1 ± 15.5 14.2 ± 14.2 ab 24.7 ± 13.5 a 31.3 ± 15.0 b < 0.001
 BMI (kg/m2) 21.5 ± 2.8 21.7 ± 3.1 21.2 ± 2.3 21.5 ± 2.7 0.220
 Infertility factors      0.003
 Male factor 194 (34 %) 86 (33 %) 58 (35 %) 50 (38 %)
 Tubal factor 119 (21 %) 59 (22 %) 42 (25 %) 18 (14 %)
 Ovulatory factor 75 (13 %) 37 (14 %) 15 (9 %) 23 (18 %)
 Endometriosis factor 87 (15 %) 32 (12 %) 37 (22 %) 18 (14 %)
 Unexplained factor 89 (16 %) 51 (19 %) 16 (9 %) 22 (17 %)
Cycle characteristics
 IVF protocol      < 0.001
 GnRHa long protocol 351 (67 %) 179 (72 %) 116 (74 %) 56 (48 %)
 GnRHa short protocol 130 (25 %) 48 (19 %) 31 (20 %) 51 (43 %)
 Antagonist protocol 38 (7 %) 22 (9 %) 6 (4 %) 10 (9 %)
 ART method (n)      0.132
 Conventional IVF 336 (64 %) 171 (68 %) 92 (59 %) 73 (62 %)
 ICSI 188 (36 %) 79 (32 %) 64 (41 %) 45 (38 %)
 Duration of stimulation (days) 9.3 ± 1.8 9.4 ± 1.8 9.1 ± 1.7 9.4 ± 2.0 0.379
 No. of gonadotrophin ampoules used 34.6 ± 14.5 32.5 ± 11.8 a 33.3 ± 13.7 b 40.8 ± 18.8 ab < 0.001
 Estradiol (pg/mL) on hCG day 2177.3 ± 1441 2377.4 ± 1541 a 2360.5 ± 1443 b 1505.4 ± 938 ab < 0.001
 No. of follicles ≥ 16 mm on hCG day 4.91 ± 3.1 5.25 ± 3.1 a 5.23 ± 3.4 b 3.77 ± 2.4 ab < 0.001
 Number of oocytes retrieved 6.9 ± 3.9 7.7 ± 4.0 a 7.2 ± 3.9 b 5.0 ± 3.1 ab < 0.001
 EM (mm) on hCG day 13.0 ± 3.1 13.0 ± 3.0 a 13.5 ± 3.5 b 12.3 ± 2.5 ab 0.011
 Pre-ovulation serum progesterone (ng/mL) 1.62 ± 0.6 1.72 ± 0.6 a 1.62 ± 0.7 b 1.41 ± 0.6 ab < 0.001
 P/E2 ratio 1.11 ± 1.2 1.13 ± 1.3 1.02 ± 1.1 1.19 ± 0.7 0.557
Cycle outcomes
 Normal fertilization rate (%) 77.4 (2830/3655) 77.1 (1488/1928) 76.2 (865/1134) 80.4 (477/593) 0.778
 Mean no. of embryos transferred 2.5 ± 1.0 2.5 ± 1.0 2.5 ± 1.1 2.3 ± 1.1 0.106
 Mean embryo score per embryo (Day 3) 3.3 ± 1.0 3.4 ± 0.9 a 3.3 ± 0.9 b 3.0 ± 1.2 ab 0.001
 Implantation rate (%) 15.8 (208/1316) 18.7 (120/642) a 16.0 (64/399) b 8.7 (24/275) ab 0.004
 Clinical pregnancy rate / transfer cycle (%) 33.7 (164/486) 40.0 (94/235) a 34.2 (50/146) b 19.0 (20/105) ab 0.022
 Live birth rate / transfer cycle (%) 19.3 (94/486) 25.1 (59/235) a 18.4 (27/146) b 7.6 (8/105) ab 0.006
  1. Note: Values are mean ± SD or proportion. Figures sharing the same superscript (a, b) are statistically significantly different at P < 0.05 by LSD analysis post hoc
  2. No, number; IVF, in vitro fertilization; BMI, body mass index; ART, assisted reproductive technology; ICSI, intracytoplasmic sperm injection; hCG, human chorionic gonadotropin; EM, endometrial thickness; P/E2, progesterone/estradiol