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Table 1 Characteristics of studies assessing sFlt-1 in first trimester of pregnancy

From: Levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase one in first trimester and outcomes of pregnancy: a systematic review

Reference Location Study Design Type of sample and gestational age at screening Participants Outcome(s) s-FLT1
Summary measure
Akolekar, 2010 United Kingdom nested case-control Plasma
11-13 weeks
Singleton pregnancies
Exclusions: hypertension but uncertainty about a diagnosis of preeclampsia (n = 30), preeclampsia but stored blood not available (n = 57)
< 34 weeks
≥ 34 weeks
Baumann, 2008 Switzerland case-control Serum
11-14 weeks
Singleton pregnancies
Exclusions: women with history of hypertensive disorders, immunological diseases, HELLP, or PE < 34 weeks
Preeclampsia mean, median
Chaiworapongsa, 2005 Chile case-control Plasma
7-16 weeks
Singleton pregnancies. Exclusions: pregnancies with fetal anomaly or demise, vaginal bleeding, women with serious medical conditions, chronic hypertension, asthma requiring medication, or requiring the use of anti-platelet or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Preeclampsia mean
Erez, 2008 Chile nested case-control Plasma
6-15 weeks
Singleton pregnancies. SGA
Preeclampsia (preterm and term)
median, OR
Eskild, 2008 Norway nested case-control Serum
4-12 weeks
Normotensive pregnant women only. Excessive postpartum bleeding mean
Lynch 2010 USA
prospective cohort Serum
10-15 weeks
Singleton pregnancies, women presenting for prenatal care
Exclusions: intrauterine fetal loss, gestational hypertension
Preeclampsia mean
Noori 2010 United Kingdom prospective cohort Serum
10-17 weeks
Singleton pregnancies from routine screening (n = 114) and an obstetric medicine clinic (n = 45) Preeclampsia, (preterm and term)
Gestational hypertension
geometric mean
Rana S, 2007 USA
nested case-control Serum
11-13 weeks
Singleton pregnancies delivered > 20 weeks (livebirths) gestation.
Exclusions: women with history of hypertension, hypertension 6 weeks postpartum, renal disease, or diabetes.
Preeclampsia mean
Smith, 2007 Scotland
nested case-control Serum
10-14 weeks
Singleton pregnancies.
Exclusions: stillbirths due to congenital anomalies or rhesus disease.
Preterm (extreme and moderate)
Thadhani R, 2004 USA
nested case-control Serum
8-14 weeks
Singleton pregnancies > 20 weeks gestation.
Exclusions: women with hypertension > 6 weeks postpartum, history of thyroid, liver, or chronic renal disease, or chronic hypertension.
Preeclampsia, Gestational hypertension
Vatten LJ, 2007 Norway
nested case-control Serum
4-12 weeks
Singleton pregnancies Preeclampsia (preterm and term) mean, OR
Wathen KA, 2006 Finland
longitudinal case-control Serum
2-15 weeks
Singleton pregnancies among Caucasian women
Exclusions: women with history of hypertension, diabetes, chronic disease, or smoke > 5 cigarettes/day.
median, OR
  1. All blood testing done using an ELISA testing kit developed by R&D Systems
  2. SGA = small for gestational age; IUGR = intrauterine growth restriction