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Table 1 Demographic and clinical data associated with fetal heart rate category

From: The impact of non-significant variable decelerations appearing in the latent phase on delivery mode: a prospective cohort study

  Category I Category II Category II pa
   NSV SV  
  (N = 251) (N = 186) (N = 76)  
Maternal characteristics     
Maternal age, years 29.7 ± 5.9 29.6 ± 5.6 29.6 ± 5.2 0.9
Body mass index, kg/m2 29.3 ± 4.5 29.2 ± 4.8 30.8 ± 5.3 0.05b
Gestational age, weeks 39.6 ± 1.2 39.4 ± 1.5 39.6 ± 1.3 0.5
Parity 2.6 ± 1.6 2.5 ± 1.5 2.3 ± 1.5 0.4
Primiparous vs Multiparous     0.05b
   Primiparous 72 (28.7) 56 (30.1) 33 (43.4)  
   Multiparous 179 (71.3) 130 (69.9) 43 (56.6)  
Maternal disease 20 (8.0) 39 (21.0) 14 (18.4) 0.0001c
Oligohydramnios 13 (5.2) 21 (11.7) 18 (23.7) 0.0001d
Polyhydramnios 6 (2.4) 4 (2.2) 2 (2.6) 1
Induction of labor 62 (24.7) 121 (65.1) 58 (76.3) 0.0001c
Epidural 61 (24.3) 61 (32.8) 32 (42.1) 0.0001c
Delivery method     0.0001b
Spontaneous Vaginal 238 (94.8) 166 (89.2) 40 (52.6)  
Vacuum or cesarean 13 (5.2) 20 (10.8) 36 (47.4)  
Vacuum 6 (2.4) 8 (4.3) 11 (14.5)  
Cesarean 7 (2.8) 12 (6.5) 25 (32.9)  
Reasons for vacuum or cesarean delivery     0.03b
   Non reassuring fetal heart rate monitoring 3 (23.1) 5 (25.0) 20 (55.6)  
   Failure to progress in the active or second stage 10 (76.9) 15 (75.0) 16 (44.4)  
Neonatal outcome     
Neonatal weight, g 3329 ± 392 3297 ± 439 3130 ± 487 0.002b
Neonates born < 2500 g 2 (0.8) 7 (3.8) 9 (11.8) 0.0001e
Apgar score at 5 minutes 9.96 ± 0.23 9.90 ± 0.31 9.86 ± 0.39 0.01
Cord pH 7.31 ± 0.07 7.31 ± 0.07 7.30 ± 0.08 0.5
Cord pH between 7.0 and 7.1 2 (0.8) 1 (0.5%) 4 (5.3) 0.008b
Meconium stained amniotic fluid 22 (8.8) 26 (14.0) 15 (19.7) 0.03f
Nuchal cord or true knot 23 (9.2) 19 (10.2) 12 (15.8) 0.3
Neonatal deaths 0 0 0 1
  1. Data are mean ± standard deviation or n (%) unless otherwise specified.
  2. aComparison of all three groups; bCategory II-SV versus Category I and Category II-NSV; cCategory II-NSV and Category II-SV versus Category I; dCategory II-NSV versus Category I, p = 0.01, dCategory II-SV versus Category II-NSV, p = 0.02;
  3. eCategory II-NSV versus Category I, p = 0.04, eCategory II-SV versus Category II-NSV, p = 0.02; fCategory II-SV versus Category I.
  4. Abbreviations: NSV: non-significant variable decelerations (study group); SV: significant variable decelerations; NS: non-significant. Maternal disease: hypertensive disorders, gestational or pre-gestational diabetes, thrombophilia, cardiac disease and asthma.