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Table 2 Cytokines and adhesion molecules in the third trimester of normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia*

From: Maternal immune system adaptation to pregnancy - a potential influence on the course of diabetic retinopathy

Parameter Normal pregnancy Pre-eclampsia
TNF-α Increased Increased
IL-1α No change Increased
IL-1β Increased Increased
IL-4 No change/reduced No change/reduced
IL-6 Increased Increased
IL-8 Increased Increased
IL-10 No change/increased No change/increased
ICAM-1 Increased Increased
VCAM-1 Increased Increased
  1. * Changes relative to levels in non-pregnant control subjects
  2. Abbreviations: DM, diabetes mellitus; DR, diabetic retinopathy; NPDR, nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy; PDR, proliferative diabetic retinopathy; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; IL, interleukin; ICAM, intercellular adhesion molecule; VCAM, vascular cell adhesion molecule