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Table 1 Medications and their respective effects on both male and female reproductive function

From: Lifestyle factors and reproductive health: taking control of your fertility

Medication Effect on reproductive function
Anabolic Steroids Impairment of spermatogenesis (up to one year recovery); may cause hypogonadism through pituitary–gonadal axis
Antiandrogens: Impairment of spermatogenesis; erectile dysfunction
Cyproterone acetate, danazol, finasteride, ketoconazole, spironolactone Reversible
Antibiotics: Impairment of spermatogenesis
Ampicillin, cephalotin, cotrimoxazole, gentamycin, neomycin, nitrofurantoin, Penicillin G, spiramycin Reversible
Antibiotics: Impairment of sperm motility
Cotrimoxazole, dicloxacillin, erythromycin, lincomycin, neomycin, nitrofurantoin, quinolones, tetracycline, tylosin
Antiepiletics: Impairment of sperm motility
Phenytoin Reversible
Antihypertensives: Fertilization failure
Calcium channel blockers (nifedipine)
Antihypertensives: Erectile dysfunction
Alpha agonists (clonidine), alpha blockers (prazocin), beta blockers, hydralazine, methyldopa, thiazide diuretics
Anti-inflammatory 5-ASA and derivatives: Impairment of spermatogenesis and sperm motility
Mesalazine, sulfasalazine Reversible
Antimalarials: Impairment of sperm motility
Quinine and its derivatives Reversible
Antimetabolites ⁄ Antimitotics: Arrest of spermatogenesis; azoospermia
Colchicines, cyclophosphamide
Anti-oestrogens Impairment of endometrial development
Clomiphene citrate reversible
Anti-progestins: Impairment of both implantation and tubal function
Emergency contraceptive pills, progesterone-only pills
Antipsychotics: Increase prolactin concentrations that can lead to sexual dysfunction
Alpha blockers, phenothiazine, antidepressants (particularly SSRIs)
Antipsychotics: Impairment of spermatogenesis and sperm motility
Butyrophenones Reversible
Antischistozomal: Impairment of spermatogenesis and sperm motility
Niridazole Reversible
Corticosteroids Impairment of sperm concentration and motility
Exogenous testosterone, GnRH analogues Impairment of spermatogenesis
H2 blockers: Increase prolactin concentrations that can lead to impairment of luteal function, loss of libido, and erectile dysfunction
Cimetidine, ranitidine
Local anaesthetics, halothane Impair sperm motility
Metoclopramide Erectile dysfunction
Methadone Suppress spermatogenesis and sperm motility
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Cox-2 inhibitors Impairment of follicle rupture, ovulation, and tubal function