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Table 2 Neonatal characteristics and long-term neurodevelopment outcomes of the 31 children born following exposure to GnRH-a

From: No significant long-term complications from inadvertent exposure to gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist during early pregnancy in mothers and offspring: a retrospective analysis

Clinical data Children born following exposure to GnRH-a (n = 31) Children born following IVF (n = 45) Children born following spontaneous conception (n = 45) P value
Mode of delivery
 Caesarean section %b 40.0 (12/30) 64.44(29/45) 37.78(17/45) 0.023
Neonatal health outcomes
 Gestational weeks 37.97 ± 1.89 37.80 ± 2.37 38.60 ± 1.84 0.093
 Singleton birth 29 33 45
 Twins 1 6 0
 Birth weight (g) 3175.81 ± 477.82 3160.00 ± 405.45 3308.89 ± 373.15 0.111
 Body height (cm) 50.16 ± 2.53 49.73 ± 1.79 50.11 ± 1.19 0.449
 Apgar score 9.97 ± 0.18 9.87 ± 0.34 9.93 ± 0.25 0.239
 Birth defects 1 (Cleft lip) 1 (ASD) 0
Neurodevelopmental outcomes
 Children age (year) 5.03 ± 1.80 5.22 ± 1.99 5.16 ± 1.15 0.860
 FSIQa 105.77 ± 8.58 105.98 ± 10.61 104.60 ± 11.26 0.865
 ADHD 0 2 1
 ASDs 1 0 0
  1. Annotation: a the child with ASDs was not evaluated; bGnRH-a group vs IVF group (p = 0.037); IVF In vitro fertilisation, ASD Atrial septal defect, FSIQ Full-scale intelligence quotient, ADHD Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, ASDs Autism spectrum disorders