Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics, treatment, and outcomes for fresh, nondonor cycles among black and white women

From: Status of racial disparities between black and white women undergoing assisted reproductive technology in the US

  No Prior ART Prior ART
Black (n = 8458) White (n = 64,878)   Black (n = 5259) White (n = 44,126)  
Characteristics (% reporting) % (95% CI) % (95% CI) p % (95% CI) % (95% CI) p
Women’s age (year)    < 0.001    < 0.001
  < 35 38.5 (37.5–39.6) 54.6 (54.2–55)   20.9 (19.8–22.1) 32.2 (32.2–33.1)  
 35–37 22.4 (21.5–23.3) 21.2 (20.8–21.5)   17.7 (16.6–18.7) 21.9 (21.5–22.3)  
 38–40 19.8 (18.9–20.6) 15.2 (14.9–15.4)   24.7 (23.6–25.9) 22.1 (21.7–22.4)  
 41–42 10.1 (9.4–10.7) 5.7 (5.5–5.8)   16.3 (15.3–17.3) 11.8 (11.5–12.1)  
  > 42 9.3 (8.7–9.9) 3.5 (3.3–3.6)   20.4 (19.3–21.5) 11.7 (11.4–12)  
BMI > =30 47.4 (46.4–48.5) 31.5 (31.1–31.9) <.001 49.4 (48–50.7) 34.5 (34.1–35) < 0.001
Nulliparous 55.6 (54.1–57.1) 51.2 (50.5–51.8) < 0.001 53.3 (51.7–55) 44.4 (43.8–44.9) < 0.001
Past spontaneous abortions 28.6 (27.6–29.6) 20.2 (19.9–20.5) < 0.001 41.1 (39.8–42.5) 32.8 (32.4–33.3) < 0.001
Diagnosis
 Tubal Factor 29.8 (28.8–30.8) 11 (10.8–11.2) < 0.001 29.1 (27.8–30.3) 10.4 (10.2–10.7) < 0.001
  Tubal Ligation 3.2 (2.8–3.6) 1.7 (1.6–1.8) < 0.001 2.1 (1.7–2.5) 1 (0.9–1.1) < 0.001
  Hydrosalpinx 2.9 (2.6–3.3) 0.8 (0.7–0.8) < 0.001 2.9 (2.5–3.4) 0.7 (0.6–0.8) < 0.001
  Other 24.2 (23.3–25.2) 8.6 (8.4–8.9) < 0.001 24.5 (23.4–25.7) 8.8 (8.6–9.2) < 0.001
Male Infertility 31.6 (30.6–32.6) 34.2 (33.9–34.6) < 0.001 31.3 (30.1–32.6) 36 (35.5–36.4) < 0.001
Uterine Factor 12.6 (11.9–13.4) 3.8 (3.6–3.9) < 0.001 14.5 (13.6–15.5) 4.5 (4.3–4.7) < 0.001
History of endometriosis 6 (5.5–6.5) 9.2 (9–9.4) < 0.001 7.4 (6.7–8.1) 9.8 (9.5–10.1) < 0.001
Diminished ovarian reserve 27.4 (26.4–28.3) 21.5 (21.2–21.8) < 0.001 44.9 (43.5–46.2) 41.3 (40.8–41.7) 0.73
Unexplained 7.3 (6.7–7.9) 13.3 (13–13.6) < 0.001 5.7 (5.1–6.4) 10.4 (10.1–10.7) < 0.001
Ovulation Disorder (PCOS) 9 (8.4–9.6) 13.9 (13.7–14.2) < 0.001 6.8 (6.1–7.5) 10.2 (10–10.5) < 0.001
Other 22.5 (21.6–23.4) 25.5 (25.1–25.8) < 0.001 20.4 (19.3–21.5) 21.2 (20.9–21.6) 0.15
Metrics of ovarian reserve
 Day 3 FSH > =10 (IU/L) 71.8 (70.8–72.8) 65.4 (65.1–65.8) < 0.001 81.2 (80.1–82.2) 74 (73.6–74.4) < 0.001
 Mean Day 3 FSH (IU/L) 11.5 (11.2–11.83) 11.7 (11.65–11.75) 0.217 11.6 (11.55–11.65) 12.0 (11.7–12.2) 0.024
 FSH dosage > = 37 ampules (91.7) 59 (57.9–60.1) 52.2 (51.8–52.6) < 0.001 69 (67.7–70.4) 64.8 (64.3–65.2) < 0.001
 Mean AMH (ng/mL) 3.2 (3.1–3.3) 3.4 (3.4–3.4) 0.003 2.1 (2.0–2.2) 2.3(2.3–2.3) < 0.001
 AMH < 1 among women< 40 yr 13.4 (12.6–14.3) 13.4 (13.1–13.6) 0.95 21.7 (20.2–23.3) 21 (20.6–21.5) 0.4
High ovarian response 0.8 (0.7–10.6) 0.5 (0.4–0.5) < 0.001 1 (0.8–1.3) 0.7 (0.7–0.8) 0.049
Mean oocytes retrieved 13.8 (13.6–14.0) 14.3 (14.2–14.4) < 0.001 14.4 (14.1–14.7) 14.5 (14.4–14.6) 0.52
Mean embryos cryopreserved 2.70 (2.61–2.79) 2.75 (2.72–2.78) 0.24 1.29 (1.22–1.36) 1.30 (1.28–1.32) 0.77
Cycle Cancelled 12.9 (12.2–13.6) 9.9 (9.6–10.1) < 0.001 17.1 (16.1–18.1) 13.3 (13.0–13.6) < 0.001
 Due to low response 76.4 (73.8–78.9) 84.1 (83.2–85) < 0.001 77 (74.1–79.7) 80.1 (79.1–81.1) 0.03
ICSI 57.7 (56.7–58.8) 61.2 (60.8–61.6) < 0.001 58.3 (56.9–59.6) 63.9 (63.4–64.3) < 0.001
No of embryos    < 0.001    0.018
 1 34.9 (33.6–36.3) 38.2 (37.7–38.6)   25.6 (24–27.3) 26.3 (25.8–26.8)  
 2 53.4 (52–54.8) 54.1 (53.6–54.6)   51.5 (49.7–53.4) 53.1 (52.5–53.7)  
 3+ 11.7 (10.8–12.6) 7.7 (7.5–8)   22.8 (21.3–24.4) 20.6 (20.1–21.1)  
No. of embryos transferred: mean (sd) 1.8 (0.74) 1.7 (0.67) < 0.001 2.06 (0.9) 2.02 (0.88) 0.03
Implantation rate %: mean (sd) 72.4 (32.4) 76.5 (33.4) < 0.001 63.9 (35.3) 67.1 (34.1) 0.01
Treatment outcome
 Clinical intrauterine gestation (CIG) 24.4 (23.5–25.3) 33 (32.7–33.4) <.001 17.2 (16.2–18.2) 25.1 (24.7–25.3) < 0.001
  Spontaneous abortion 21 (19.3–22.8) 14.5 (14–15) 0.2 27.5 (24.6–30.5) 18.6 (17.8–19.3) <.001
  Live birth per CIG 76.4 (74.5–78.2) 84.6 (84.1–85) <.001 69.8 (66.6–72.7) 80.5 (79.7–81.2) < 0.001
 Biochemical pregnancy 4.8 (4.4–5.3) 5.7 (5.5–5.9) 0.0013 4.2 (3.7–4.8) 5.7 (5.5–6) < 0.001
 Ectopic or heterotopic 0.5 (0.4–0.7) 0.5 (0.5–0.6) 0.75 0.3 (0.1–0.5) 0.5 (0.4–0.6) 0.02
 Not pregnant 58.3 (57.2–59.4) 47.2 (46.8–47.6) <.001 68.4 (67.1–70) 58.3 (57.8–58.7) < 0.001
Live birth per cycle started 18.6 (17.8–19.5) 27.9 (27.6–28.3) <.001 12 (11.1–12.9) 20.2 (19.8–20.6) < 0.001
Plurality of birth (24)    <.001    < 0.001
 Singleton 76 (73.8–78) 76.9 (76.2–77.5)   75.2 (71.7–78.5) 75.8 (74.9–76.6)  
 Twins 21.2 (19.2–23.3) 21.9 (21.3–22.5)   21.1 (18–24.5) 22.6 (21.8–23.5)  
 Triples or more 2.8 (2.1–3.8) 1.3 (1.1–1.5)   3.7 (2.4–5.5) 1.6 (1.3–1.9)  
eSET (%) < 38 y/o (44.1) 21 (19.9–22.2) 23.9 (31.5–31.9) <.001 12.7 (11.3–14.2) 13.9 (13.4–14.3) 0.16
States
 Mandated 34.7 (33.7–35.7) 27.7 (27.4–28.1) <.001 39.8 (38.4–41.1) 32.4 (32–32.9) <.001
 Non-mandated 65.1 (64.1–66.1) 71.5 (71.1–71.8) <.001 60.2 (58.9–61.5) 67 (66.5–67.4) <.001