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Table 2 Summary of the different type carriers for single-sperm cryopreservation

From: Cryopreservation of single-sperm: where are we today?

BiologicalNon-biological
Zona pellucida of different speciesPolymerized alginic acid capsules
Volvox globator algaeHollow-core agarose capsules
 Hollow hyaluronan-phenolic hydroxyl microcapsules
 Cryoloops
 Culture dish
 Cell Sleeper
 Cryotop
 Cryoleaf
 Cryopiece
 Closed slice
 The novel sperm vitrification device