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Table 2 Summary of the different type carriers for single-sperm cryopreservation

From: Cryopreservation of single-sperm: where are we today?

Biological Non-biological
Zona pellucida of different species Polymerized alginic acid capsules
Volvox globator algae Hollow-core agarose capsules
  Hollow hyaluronan-phenolic hydroxyl microcapsules
  Cryoloops
  Culture dish
  Cell Sleeper
  Cryotop
  Cryoleaf
  Cryopiece
  Closed slice
  The novel sperm vitrification device