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Table 1 Single-sperm cryopreservation methods

From: Cryopreservation of single-sperm: where are we today?

Carrier Year Sperm origin Recovery rate Motility rate Survival rate Fertilization rate
Human, mouse and hamster zonae [16] 1997 Ejaculate 73% 82% NA 50%
Human and hamster zonae [17] 1998 Ejaculate, testicular ≥75% 67–100% NA 65%
Human zona [18] 1999 Ejaculate 92% NA 84% NA
Human zonae [19] 2000 Testicular 88% 27% NA 23%
Human and mouse zonae [20] 2000 Ejaculate, epidydimal, testicular 82% 83% NA NA
Mouse zonae [21] 2000 Testicular 100% 58% 77% NA
Human zona pellucida [22] 2001 Epidydimal NA NA NA 57%
Human zona [23] 2003 Ejaculate 59% 73% NA NA
Volvox globator algae [24] 2004 Ejaculate 100% ≥63% NA NA
Alginic acid drops [25] 2006 Ejaculate NA 20–30% 40–50% NA
Agarose gel microspheres [26] 2007 Ejaculate 98% 78% 81% NA
Hollow-core agarose capsules [27] 2015 Ejaculate 94% 84% 95% NA
Hollow hyaluronan-phenolic hydroxyl microcapsules [28] 2016 Ejaculate 95% 14% NA NA
Cryoloops [29] 2003 Ejaculate NA 45% NA NA
Cryoloops [30] 2004 Ejaculate 68% 73% NA 67%
Cryoloop [31] 2004 Epidydimal, testicular 72% NA NA 58%
Droplets on plastic dish [32] 2000 NA 90–100% NA NA NA
0.5ul microdrop in a plastic dish [33] 2003 Ejaculate 100% < 50% NA NA
5ul microdrop in a plastic dish [34] 2008 Testicular 100% 2% NA 18%
Cell Sleeper [35] 2012 Testicular 83% NA NA 83%
Cell Sleeper [36] 2012 Ejaculate 100% 28% 58% NA
Cell Sleeper [37] 2016 Testicular 94% 56% NA 66%
Cryotop [35] 2012 Ejaculate, testicular 96% NA NA 64%
Cryotop [36] 2012 Ejaculate 100% 44% 78% NA
Cryotop [38] 2011 Ejaculate, testicular 93% 43% NA NA
Cryoleaf [39] 2011 Ejaculate, epididymal 99% 66% NA 61%
Cryopiece [40] 2017 Ejaculate, testicular 83% 48% NA 73%
Closed slice [41] 2015 Ejaculate 94% 41% 70% NA
Closed slice [42] 2017 Testicular 92% 17% 66% 56%
The novel sperm vitrification device [43] 2018 Ejaculate 96% 33% NA 59%