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Table 1 Single-sperm cryopreservation methods

From: Cryopreservation of single-sperm: where are we today?

CarrierYearSperm originRecovery rateMotility rateSurvival rateFertilization rate
Human, mouse and hamster zonae [16]1997Ejaculate73%82%NA50%
Human and hamster zonae [17]1998Ejaculate, testicular≥75%67–100%NA65%
Human zona [18]1999Ejaculate92%NA84%NA
Human zonae [19]2000Testicular88%27%NA23%
Human and mouse zonae [20]2000Ejaculate, epidydimal, testicular82%83%NANA
Mouse zonae [21]2000Testicular100%58%77%NA
Human zona pellucida [22]2001EpidydimalNANANA57%
Human zona [23]2003Ejaculate59%73%NANA
Volvox globator algae [24]2004Ejaculate100%≥63%NANA
Alginic acid drops [25]2006EjaculateNA20–30%40–50%NA
Agarose gel microspheres [26]2007Ejaculate98%78%81%NA
Hollow-core agarose capsules [27]2015Ejaculate94%84%95%NA
Hollow hyaluronan-phenolic hydroxyl microcapsules [28]2016Ejaculate95%14%NANA
Cryoloops [29]2003EjaculateNA45%NANA
Cryoloops [30]2004Ejaculate68%73%NA67%
Cryoloop [31]2004Epidydimal, testicular72%NANA58%
Droplets on plastic dish [32]2000NA90–100%NANANA
0.5ul microdrop in a plastic dish [33]2003Ejaculate100%< 50%NANA
5ul microdrop in a plastic dish [34]2008Testicular100%2%NA18%
Cell Sleeper [35]2012Testicular83%NANA83%
Cell Sleeper [36]2012Ejaculate100%28%58%NA
Cell Sleeper [37]2016Testicular94%56%NA66%
Cryotop [35]2012Ejaculate, testicular96%NANA64%
Cryotop [36]2012Ejaculate100%44%78%NA
Cryotop [38]2011Ejaculate, testicular93%43%NANA
Cryoleaf [39]2011Ejaculate, epididymal99%66%NA61%
Cryopiece [40]2017Ejaculate, testicular83%48%NA73%
Closed slice [41]2015Ejaculate94%41%70%NA
Closed slice [42]2017Testicular92%17%66%56%
The novel sperm vitrification device [43]2018Ejaculate96%33%NA59%