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Table 2 Comparison of ART-Mandated versus the Non-Mandated States from 2000 to 2016

From: Do state insurance mandates alter ICSI utilization?

Rates per Clinic, % (MEAN ± STDEV)20002001200220032004200520062007200820092010201120122013201420152016
Number of Clinics
 Mandated4443646266727575767880787878767877
 Non-Mandated110106106109111117121123126123126126123129129132131
ICSI
 Mandated42.5 ± 2049.5 ± 2151.7 ± 2155.3 ± 2258.9 ± 2262.1 ± 2263 ± 2265.4 ± 2165.3 ± 2264.2 ± 2164.6 ± 2164.1 ± 2163.3 ± 2065.3 ± 2164.9 ± 2064.8 ± 2062.5 ± 19
 Non-Mandated46.9 ± 2049.1 ± 2051.7 ± 2254.9 ± 2158.2 ± 2160.8 ± 2261 ± 2263.8 ± 2265.8 ± 2167.4 ± 2069 ± 2071.6 ± 1971.3 ± 1971.6 ± 1972.9 ± 1971.7 ± 2267.6 ± 19
p value0.210.90.980.920.840.570.530.620.990.290.140.010.010.030.010.030.06
Male Factor (MF)
 Mandated32.4 ± 1633.3 ± 1433.6 ± 1232.7 ± 1335.4 ± 1534.9 ± 1433.4 ± 1435.5 ± 1634.5 ± 1433.6 ± 1433.1 ± 1532.8 ± 1534.4 ± 1734.1 ± 1532 ± 1631.3 ± 1630.5 ± 15
 Non-Mandated36.4 ± 1337.7 ± 1337 ± 1337.8 ± 1436.9 ± 1538.5 ± 1639.3 ± 1738.4 ± 1540.2 ± 1540.7 ± 1642.1 ± 1541 ± 1440.3 ± 1637.4 ± 1538.4 ± 1637.6 ± 1536.7 ± 15
p value0.080.080.10.020.520.10.010.210.01< 0.001< 0.001< 0.0010.010.120.010.01< 0.001
ICSI/MF Ratio
 Mandated1.311.491.541.691.661.781.891.841.891.911.951.951.841.912.032.072.05
 Non-Mandated1.291.301.41.451.581.581.551.661.641.661.641.751.771.911.91.911.84
Pregn. Rate (< 35)
 Mandated29.3 ± 1135.1 ± 1237.7 ± 938.3 ± 1239 ± 1239.1 ± 1041.6 ± 1142 ± 1043.1 ± 1043.5 ± 1143.4 ± 1442.4 ± 1344.5 ± 1145 ± 1440.9 ± 1237.6 ± 1534.5 ± 16
 Non-Mandated38 ± 1440.2 ± 1142.6 ± 1043.5 ± 1341.7 ± 1443.1 ± 1444.5 ± 1246.2 ± 1247 ± 1348 ± 1347 ± 1346.5 ± 1246.9 ± 1346.9 ± 1343.2 ± 1436 ± 1735.6 ± 20
p value< 0.0010.02< 0.0010.010.180.020.080.010.020.010.060.030.150.340.220.490.66
Live Birth (< 35)
 Mandated25.1 ± 930.4 ± 1031.4 ± 832.9 ± 932.6 ± 1233.3 ± 835.6 ± 936.1 ± 1036.5 ± 937 ± 1037.2 ± 1035.7 ± 1037.6 ± 937.5 ± 1035.8 ± 931.9 ± 1429.2 ± 11
 Non-Mandated33.5 ± 1235.5 ± 1037.4 ± 1038.3 ± 1036.1 ± 1137.8 ± 1239.2 ± 1140.1 ± 1140.4 ± 1142 ± 1041.4 ± 1140.6 ± 1141.3 ± 1041 ± 1137.9 ± 1230.8 ± 1531 ± 13
p value< 0.0010.01< 0.0010.010.060.010.030.010.01< 0.0010.020.010.020.070.220.58< 0.001
PGT Ratesn/an/an/an/an/an/an/a          
 Mandated       5.2 ± 93.9 ± 83.3 ± 53.4 ± 54.2 ± 74.3 ± 64.2 ± 63.1 ± 63.3 ± 613.4 ± 13
 Non-Mandated       3.2 ± 53 ± 53 ± 53.3 ± 64.1 ± 74.4 ± 105.4 ± 114.7 ± 104.6 ± 1021.3 ± 21
p value       0.080.360.740.870.920.920.280.170.28< 0.001
eSET Rates (< 35)n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a         
 Mandated        3.1 ± 43.6 ± 64.4 ± 610.1 ± 1212.2 ± 1420.4 ± 1924.7 ± 2234.5 ± 2741.5 ± 28
 Non-Mandated        2.3 ± 33.5 ± 44.3 ± 58 ± 910.9 ± 1214.9 ± 1421.3 ± 1925 ± 2334.2 ± 28
p value        0.150.870.850.190.50.030.270.010.08
Twin Rates (< 35)n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a    
 Mandated             9.1 ± 59.2 ± 65.1 ± 44.6 ± 2
 Non-Mandated             13.2 ± 710.5 ± 66.8 ± 66.2 ± 5
p value             < 0.0010.160.020.02