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Table 5 Bisphenol A and endometriosis

From: Bisphenol A: an emerging threat to female fertility

 SourceStrainAgeExposure routeTime of exposureDosesTime of observationOutcomeOutcome observed inReference n° 
Experimental studies in vitro and ex vivoMouseC57Bl/6 N and CD-1 miceAdult miceOral administration12–15 weeks0.004, 0.04, 0.4, 4, and 40 mg/kg/day19–23 weeks of ageC57B1/6 N mice had an increased collagen fiber thickness and density in the periglandular regions of stromal cells whereas CD-1 displayed a higher increase in gland nests and extensive periglandular fibrosisAdult femaleKendziorski 2015[19]
HumanEndometrial tissue; stromal cells35–49 years oldIn vitro administration24 h; 48 h; 72 h10-5 M; 10-8 M; 10-11 M24 h; 48 h;72 hThe percentage of cells in G2/M and G0/G1 phase of cell cycle were increased and decreased, respectively, only after treatment with high BPA doses. Low BPA doses were found to increase the gene expression levels of LEFTY after 48 h of treatment, IGFBP1 after 72 h of treatment, and prolactin after 48 h and 72 h of treatment. Increased secretion of IGFBP1 and prolactin was detected after 48 h of treatment with low BPA doses. The messenger expression levels of MMP3 at low BPA doses and messenger expression levels of MMP9 increased at both low and high BPA doses. TIMP3 messenger expression levels were downregulated only at high doses Forte 2016[42]
Experimental studies in vivoMouseC57Bl/6 N and CD-1 miceAdult femaleOral administration12–15 weeks0.004, 0.04, 0.4, 4, and 40 mg/kg/ day19–23 weeks of ageIncreased endometrial gland nest formation and stromal and periglandular collagen accumulation was observed in both CD-1 and C57Bl/6 N mouse strains.Adult Female miceKendziorski 2015[19]
MouseCD1 miceFemale PupsSubcutaneous injectionsFrom PND1 to PND510, 100, or 1000 μg/kg18 months of ageIncrease in cystic ovaries and cystic endometrial hyperplasia in the BPA-100 group. Newbold 2007[102]
MouseBalb-CAdult pregnant femaleSubcutaneous injectionsFrom GD1 until the seventh day after delivery100 or 1000 μg/kg/ day21 days after deliveryIncrease of of endometriosis-like structures in the adipose tissue surrounding the genital organs. Cystic ovaries, aden omatous hyperplasia with cystic endometrial hyperplasia and atypical hyperplasia. Increased gene expression of both ER and Homeobox A10 (HOXA-10) in the nucleus of BPA- induced lesions.Adult Female miceSignorile 2010[98]