Skip to main content

Table 2 Bisphenol A and hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary (HPO) axis: pituitary

From: Bisphenol A: an emerging threat to female fertility

  Source Strain Age Exposure route Time of exposure Doses Time of observation Outcome Outcome observed in Reference n°  
Experimental studies in vitro and ex-vivo Rat Sprague-Dawley Female pups Subcutaneous Injection From PND1 to PND10 6.2–2.5 mg/kg bw/day and 62.5–25.0 mg/kg bw/day PND13 Decreased basal and GnRH-stimulated LH levels in medium of adult anterior pituitary cell cul tures. Adult anterior pituitary cell cultures treated with BPA 6.2–2.5 mg/kg bw/day showed rapid and transient activation of ERK1/2 com pared to control Female rats in adulthood in estrus phase Fernandez 2009 [79]
Experimental studies in vivo Mouse CD-1 Adult pregnant mice Oral gavage Cohort A: from GD1 to PND20 12, 25 and 50 mg/kg bw/day PND50 Increased FSH mRNA expression. No significant change in serum LH and FSH Levels at proestrus phase Female offspring (F1) in adulthood Xi 2011 [29]
Mouse CD-1 Female pups (F1) Oral gavage Cohort B: from PND20 to PND49 25 and 50 mg/kg bw/day PND50 No significant change in LH and FSH mRNA expression at proestrus phase Female offspring (F1) in adulthood Xi 2011 [29]
Rat Sprague-Dawley 8-week-old Oral gavage From GD1 to PND20 0.001 or 0.1 mg/kg bw/ day After 90 days of exposure Increased serum LH levels and LH protein content after BPA exposure of 0.001 and 0.1 mg/kg bw/ day. No significant change in serum FSH levels and FSH protein expression during estrus The same adult female rats (8-week- old) Lee 2013 [30]
Rat Wistar Adult pregnancy rats Oral administration (drinking water) From GD1 to PND21 3 μg/kg bw/Day PND30 Increased serum LH levels. No significant change in serum FSH levels Female offspring in prepubertal phase Gamez 2015 [31]
Rat Sprague-Dawley Female pups Subcutaneous Injection From PND1 to PND10 6.2–2.5 mg/kg bw/day and 62.5–25.0 mg/kg bw/day PND13 Decreased basal and GnRH-stimulated serum LH levels at BPA 62.5–25.0 mg/kg bw/day. Female pups Fernandez 2009 [79]
Rat Sprague-Dawley Female pups Subcutaneous Injection From PND1 to PND10 6.2–2.5 mg/kg bw/day and 62.5–25.0 mg/kg bw/day During estrus Decreased GnRH-stimulated (15′) serum LH levels at BPA 62.5–25.0 mg/kg bw/day during estrus Female rats in adulthood Fernandez 2009 [79]
Mouse ICR Adult female mice Oral Administration Proestrus after 4th/5th estrus 20 μg/kg bw/ day During diestrus, proestrus and estrus Increased serum LH and FSH levels during proestrus The same adult female mice Wang 2014 [78]
Mouse ICR Adult female mice Injection into the right lateral ventricle Proestrus after 4th/5th estrus 0.02, 0.2, 2,20 and 200nM/3μl During diestrus, proestrus and estrus Increased serum LH levels during proestrus The same adult female mice Wang 2014 [78]
Rat Sprague-Dawley Adult Female rats Oral Administration After two classic estrous cycles 50 mg/kg bw/day 6 consecutive weeks Increased serum LH and FSH levels The same adult female rats Zhou 2014 [86]
Mice C57BL/6J Adult female mice Oral administration 12–15 days (first 3 reproductive cycle) 50 μg/kg bw/ Day 51–54 days No significant change in serum LH and FSH Levels The same adult female mice Moore- Ambriz 2015 [87]
Rat Sprague- Dawley Adult Female rats Oral gavage 42 days 10 mg/kg bw/day After the last treatment day, during diestrus Decreased serum LH and FSH levels during diestrus The same adult female rats Zaid 2018 [88]
Rat Wistar Adult female Subcutaneous Injection From PND 90 to PND105 25 ng/kg/d and 5 mg/kg/ day 24 h after last treatment, during diestrus No significant change in serum LH and FSH levels. Delay in LH surge during diestrus The same adult female rats Lòpez-Rodríguez 2019 [89]
Mouse C57BL/6J Adult second- pregnancy mice Oral gavage Pregnancy From GD15 to lactation (PND21) period 0.05 and 5 mg/kg bw/ day During diestrus 5 weeks after BPA administration No change in serum LH levels during diestrus Female offspring in adulthood Naule 2014 [81]
Rat Wistar-derived strain Female Pups (F1) Subcutaneous Injection From PND1 to PND7 0.05 and 20 mg/kg bw/ day During estrus from PND85 to PND100 Precluded the production of an E2-induced LH surge at 20 mg/kg bw/day during estrus Female pups in adulthood from PND85 to 100 Monje 2010 [82]