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Table 1 Comparison of clinical and biochemical characteristics between spontaneous conception and ART participants

From: Assisted conception as a potential prognostic factor predicting insulin therapy in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus

Variables SC (n = 136) ART (n = 100) P-value
Clinical
 Maternal age (Years, Mean ± SE) 31.57 ± 0.46 32.36 ± 0.52 0.261
 Parity (n = 0), n (%) 56 (41.2) 88 (87.1) 0.001*
 Family history of DM, (Yes, n %) 52 (38.2) 42 (41.6) 0.602
 Systolic blood pressure (Mean ± SE) 107.07 ± 0.87 106.68 ± 0.99 0.769
 Diastolic blood pressure (Mean ± SE) 68.59 ± 0.72 66.83 ± 0.76 0.098
 Pre-pregnancy BMI (Mean ± SE) 25.89 ± 0.42 27.32 ± 0.40 0.018*
 Prior history of spontaneous abortion, (Yes), n (%) 36 (29.1) 32 (31.7) 0.670
 Prior history of GDM, (Yes), n (%) 18 (13.2) 1 (0.9) 0.001*
 Prior history of macrosomia, (Yes), n (%) 6 (4.4) 1 (0.9) 0.124
Biochemical
 GTT-FBS (mg/dl)(Mean ± SE) 93.38 ± 0.87 93.13 ± 0.96 0.851
 GTT-1 h(mg/dl)(Mean ± SE) 162.93 ± 4.11 158.22 ± 4.72 0.455
 GTT-2 h(mg/dl)(Mean ± SE) 134.29 ± 3.71 133.26 ± 3.67 0.847
 FBS (mg/dl)(Mean ± SE) 84.21 ± 1.05 88.23 ± 0.95 0.006*
 HbA1c (%) (Mean ± SE) 4.98 ± 0.10 5.07 ± 0.63 0.297
 TG (mg/dl)(Mean ± SE) 200.61 ± 6.13 193.42 ± 5.62 0.254
 Cholesterol (mg/dl)(Mean ± SE) 219.91 ± 3.52 210.86 ± 4.43 0.107
 HDL (mg/dl)(Mean ± SE) 64.17 ± 1.34 63.49 ± 1.26 0.715
 LDL (mg/dl)(Mean ± SE) 116.13 ± 3.01 110.31 ± 4.01 0.238
 VLDL (mg/dl)(Mean ± SE) 40.05 ± 1.24 37.19 ± 1.28 0.115
 Hs-CRP (Mean ± SE) 4.69 ± 0.40 7.21 ± 0.83 0.005*
 IL-17 (Mean ± SE) 1.19 ± 0.26 2.66 ± 0.95 0.161
 Insulin (Mean ± SD) 13.57 ± 140 13.98 ± 0.96 0.821
 HOMA-IR 2.90 ± 0.34 3.09 ± 0.23 0.672
  1. SC spontaneous conception, ART Assisted reproductive technology, IL-17 Interleukin- 17, Hs-CRP High-sensitivity C - reactive protein, The Homeostasis Model Assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index = [Glucose] * [Insulin] / 405 (Glucose in mg/dl)
  2. *P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant
  3. † T-test compared the mean difference between the SC group and ART group