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Fig. 5 | Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology

Fig. 5

From: Differential placental ceramide levels during gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)

Fig. 5

Ceramide and insulin reduce mitochondrial respiration. BeWo choriocarcinoma cells were treated with insulin (INS; 50 nM) or C2-ceramide (C2; 1 μM) for 16 h (n = 3). To measure mitochondrial respiration (a), cells were treated with: GM, Glutamate (10 mM) + Malate (2 mM); GMD: + ADP (2.5 mM); GMSD, + Succinate (10 mM); GMSE, + FCCP (0.05 μM). Respiratory control ratio (RCR; (b)) and Complex II Factor (CII Factor; (c)) were determined by the analysis indicated. *p < 0.05 for condition vs. controls (CON). #p < 0.05 for condition vs. C2

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