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Table 1 Effects of psychological stress on semen parameters: clinical studies

From: Lifestyle and fertility: the influence of stress and quality of life on male fertility

First author and year Population Country Stress exposure and/ or assessment Semen parameter affected Adjustment Study design
Stress due to environmental disasters
 Fukuda 1996 [24] 27 infertile men Japan Earthquake ↓Motility →Sperm conc Unadjusted Longitudinal
 Abu-Musa 2007 [22] 10,000 semen
Lebanon War ↓Sperm conc [Morphology →Volume,
Unadjusted Cross- sectional
Stress due to examinations or other stressful life events
 Hjollund 2004 [34] 418 men Denmark Self-rated stress →Sperm conc, semen volume, total count, morphology, motility Age, smoking, alcohol, caffeine,
reproductive disorders, BMI,
 Eskiocak 2005 [23] 34 students Turkey University
↓Motility, sperm conc, morphology→
Semen volume
Unadjusted Longitudinal
 Zorn 2008 [32] 1076 infertile men Slovenia Life events Sperm conc, motility, morphology Age, smoking, abstinence time,
cryptorchidism, varicocele
 Gollenberg 2010 [12] 744 fertile men USA Life events ↓Sperm conc, total count
→Morphology, motility
Center, age, race, education,
fever, abstinence time
 Nordkap L 2016 [30] 1215 young men Denmark self-reported stress ↓ sperm count,motility and morphology ↑ FSH→ Age, reproductive
disorders, alcohol,
BMI, caffeine, cannabis, stress
Cross- sectional
Occupational stress
 Hjollund 2004 [34] 399 men Denmark Work-related →Sperm conc, volume, total count, morphology Age, reproductive
disorders, alcohol,
BMI, caffeine
 Janevic T 2014 [33] 327 infertile men Poland Work-related
Self-rated stress
Morphology Age, reproductive diseases,
alcohol, BMI, smoking,
duration of infertility
 Stress due to infertility
 Pook 2005 [31] 120 infertile men Germany Self-rated stress ↓ Sperm conc Unadjusted Longitudinal
 Vellani 2013 [28] 94 male
IVF-patients / 85
Italy Self-rated stress ↓Motility, sperm conc,total count,
Unadjusted (but excluded
men with diseases)
Cross- sectional
 Bhongade 2014 [27] 70 infertile men India Self-rated stress ↓Sperm conc, motility, morphology Age, abstinence time Cross- sectional