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Table 1 Studies on Reproduction: In vitro & In vivo

From: Radiations and male fertility

Subject/ species Exposure Parameters Findings References
Male swiss albino mice, n = 8 902.4 MHz 4 h/ 8 h/ day for 35 days; SAR 0.0516 W/kg Significant increase in abnormal cells, spermatogonia and decreased spermatids. Significant histological changes in seminiferous tubules. Significant increase in DNA damage of both 4 & 8 h exposure. Pandey et al. 2017 [21].
Sprague Dawley male rats, n = 8 900 MHz mobile phone frequency; 1 h/ day for 30 days; SAR 0.025 W/kg Significant increase in apoptosis and changes in the levels of SOD, GPx, CAT, LPO. Cincludes that 900 MHz could alter histology, the oxidative status and apoptosis induction in testes. Odaci and Ozyilmaz 2016 [22]
Human spermatozoa (in vitro), n = 26 850 MHz continuous for 1 h; SAR 1.46 W/kg In group 1 of normal sperm, the gene and protein expression of clusterin and DNA fragmentation were increased significantly in EMF exposed sperm. Concluded detrimental effect of mobile phone on sperm parameters. Zalata et al. 2015 [23]
Human spermatozoa (in vitro), n = 32 900–1800 MHz; intermittent every 10 min for 5 h; Significantly increase in DNA fragmentation and non-progressive motility and reduction in progressive motility in exposed sperm. Gorpinchenko et al. 2014 [24]
Male Wistar rats, n = 6 2.45 GHz/0.14 W/Kg (2 h a day for 45 days) A significant increase in DNA SB, protein carbonyl content, ROS, XO, MDA apoptosis and significant decrease in testosterone, LDH-X were observed in microwave exposed group. A treatment with melatonin prevent oxidative damage in all above parameters. Meena et al. 2014 [25].
Male Wistar rats, n = 6 1910.5 MHz/ 1.34 W/kg 60 days, two hours each day (6 days a week) Significant decrease in sperm count, seminiferous diameter, testicular weight and increase in DNA single strand break and MDA level. Kumar et al. 2014 [26]
Male Male Wistar rats, n = 6 in each group GSM 900 MHz/ 0.9 W/Kg (2 h/day for 45 days Decrease sperm count, increased apoptosis, micronuclei and ROS. Affect the level of antioxidant enzymes and testosterone level. Morphological changes also observed under TEM. Kesari et al. 2011, Kesari and Behari 2012 [27, 28]
Male Wistar rats, n = 3 each group 2.45GHz/ 0.014 W/Kg (2 h/day for 60 days). PEMF 100 Hz Decreased melatonin, testosterone and increased creatine kinase, capases significantly in exposed group. PEMF showed therapeutic impact against microwave exposure. Kumar et al. 2011 [29]
Male Wistar Rats, n = 6 each group 10GHz/ flux density 0.21 mW/cm2/ SAR: 0.014 W/kg/ Continuous 2 h/day for 45 days Significant increase in ROS level, apoptotic cells and decrease in percentage of G2 phase /mitosis phase of cell cycle and histone kinase enzyme activity. Kumar et al. 2011 [30]
Male Wistar rats, n = 6 2.45GHz/ 0.11 W/Kg (2 h/day for 35 days) Significant decrease in sperm count, changes in antioxidant enzyme (SOD, GPx, CAT) and DNA fragmentation exceed to cell apoptosis. Kesari and Behari 2010 [31]
Male Wistar rats, n = 6 RF-EMR 900/ 0.9 W/kg (2 h/ day for 35 days) Statistically significant reduction in Protein Kinase C activity, sperm count and increased apoptotic sperm cells. Kesari et al. 2010 [32]
Male Albino Wistar rat 900 MHz GSM (60 min/day for 3 months) Long term mobile phone radiation exposure leads to reduction in serum testosterone level Meo et al. 2010 [33]
Human semen RF-EMR 850 MHz/ 1.46 W/kg. (for 60 min) Motility & viability significantly decreased, increased in ROS level, decreased in ROS-TAC score Agarwal et al. (2009) [34]
Male Albino Wistar rat GSM 0.9 & 1.8 GHz/ SAR-? (1 h/day for 28 days) Reduced % of motile sperm. Increase LPx, GSH content of testis and epididymis. Mailankot et al. 2009 [35]
Human Spermatozoa 71.8 GHz/ 0.4–27.5 W/Kg (exposure time 16 h). Both [power density and frequency range enhance mitochondrial ROS in human spermatozoa leads to decrease in motility and viability and cause DNA fragmentation De Iuliis et al. 2009 [36]
Sprague Dawley rats RF-EMR 1.9 Hz @ distance of 1 cm for 6 h/day ×  18 weeks Significant decrease in sperm motility also majority of sperm cells in the exposure group were dead, where as in the control group the majority were alive with constant, active motility Yan et al. 2007 [37]