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Table 1 Summary of molecules suggested to play a role in implantation failure

From: Recurrent Implantation Failure-update overview on etiology, diagnosis, treatment and future directions

Molecule Source Implantation Failure, Biochemical Pregnancy, and RIF patients Controls/healthy outcomes Source
Hyperglycosylated hCG (levels) Urine 0.63 ± 1.3 mIU/ml 5.4 ± 4.3 mIU/ml Cole et al, 2012 [50]
Biochemical Pregnancy Healthy Delivery
(P < .0001) (P < .0001)
Prostaglandins (cPLA2a) Endometrium 1.001 (ratio) 2.956 (ratio) Achache et al., 2010 [56]
RIF patients Controls
(P < .05) (P < .05)
LIF (in secretory phase of menstrual cycle compared with proliferative phase) Endometrium Secretory 2162 ± 541 pg Secretory 3489 ± 967 pg Hambartsoumian 1998 [55]
Proliferative 4953 ± 1525 pg Proliferative 4698 ± 1136 pg
(P = .06) NS
RIF Patients Controls
Cellular adhesion molecules
 1) αvβ3 luminal epithelium α4β1 glandular epithelium
Endometrium HSCORE HSCORE Thomas et al., 2002 [57]
1.1 (0.8–1.6) 1.6 (1.1–1.9)
no pregnancy pregnancy
(P = .027) (P = .027)
2.7 (2.1–3.3) 2.3 (1.5–2.8)
no pregnancy pregnancy
(P < .047) (P < .047)