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Table 9 Summary of SMD values for induced AR assay

From: Human sperm acrosome function assays are predictive of fertilization rate in vitro: a retrospective cohort study and meta-analysis

Subgroup N SMD
(95% CI)
Test(s) of heterogeneity Significance test(s) of
SMD = 0
P a
I2 (%) P Z P  
Overall 22 0.86 (0.60–1.11) 78.7 0.000 6.55 0.000  
Four experiments excluded 18 0.71 (0.52–0.90) 54.8 0.003 7.25 0.000  
Geographic area
 Europe 15 0.76 (0.44–1.07) 82.1 0.000 4.68 0.000 0.001
 Oceania 1 0.66 (0.24–1.08) b 3.10 0.002  
 South America 1 0.97 (0.15–1.78) 2.33 0.020  
 Africa 1 1.86 (0.91–2.80) 4.46 0.000  
 North America 1 1.91 (1.18–2.63) 5.14 0.000  
 Asia 3 0.86 (0.48–1.24) 0.0 0.589 4.46 0.000  
Preparation method
 No preparation 0       
 One preparation 22       
  Swim up 8 1.51 (1.13–1.89) 61.3 0.012 7.75 0.000 < 0.001
  Swim up/discontinuous gradient 1 0.97 (0.15–1.78) 4.79 0.000  
  Discontinuous gradient 13 0.47 (0.28–0.66) 48.2 0.027 2.33 0.020  
 Double preparation 0       
AR trigger        
 Physiological trigger 7 0.95 (0.29–1.61) 89.1 0.000 2.81 0.005 0.92
  HFF 3 0.97 (−0.42–2.37) 95.1 0.000 1.37 0.172  0.029
  P 3 0.65 (0.01–1.28) 73.4 0.023 1.99 0.047  
  ZP 1 1.86 (0.91–2.80) 3.85 0.000  
 Nonphysiological trigger 15 0.81 (0.56–1.06) 67.6 0.000 6.36 0.000  
  A23187 10 0.87 (0.66–1.08) 26.1 0.204 8.30 0.000 < 0.001
  CAMP 1 −0.12 (−0.56–0.32) 0.54 0.588  
  TPA 2 0.40 (0.09–0.70) 0.0 0.866 2.54 0.011  
  BSA-GlcNAc/A23187 1 0.97 (0.15–1.78) 2.33 0.020  
  Mannose 1 1.91 (1.18–2.63) 5.14 0.000  
AR assay method        
 Fluorescent labels 21 0.82 (0.57–1.08) 78.3 0.000 6.26 0.000 0.012
  Direct immunofluorescence 19 0.80 (0.52–1.07) 79.4 0.000 5.72 0.000 0.16
   With lection 12 1.16 (0.84–1.47) 66.3 0.001 7.17 0.000 < 0.001
    FITC-PSA 7 1.19 (0.68–1.71) 77.5 0.000 4.53 0.000  0.060
    FITC-PNA 4 0.96 (0.66–1.25) 0.0 0.961 6.27 0.000  
    RITC-PSA 1 1.91 (1.18–2.63) 7.17 0.000  
   With antibody 7 0.28 (0.06–0.50) 44.2 0.097 2.45 0.014  
    FITC-GB24
  Indirect immunofluorescence 2 1.11 (0.26–1.95) 64.2 0.094 2.57 0.010  
   GB24 antibody
 Triple stain 1 1.52 (0.87–2.18) 78.7 0.000 4.57 0.000  
  1. Rs spearman correlation coefficient, AR acrosome reaction, CI confidence interval, HFF human follicle fluid, P progesterone, ZP zona pellucida, CAMP cyclic adenosine 3′-5′-phosphate analogue, TPA phorbol ester, BSA-GlcNAc Neoglycoproteins with N-acetylglucosamine residues, FITC-PSA fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Pisurn sativum agglutimm, FITC-PNA fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated peanut agglutinin, RITC-PSA rhodamine-conjugated Pisurn sativum agglutimm, FITC-GB24, fluorescein isothiocyanate-GB24
  2. aComparison between subgroups with the Q test for heterogeneity
  3. bNot calculated