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Table 6 Summary of SMD values for AE assay

From: Human sperm acrosome function assays are predictive of fertilization rate in vitro: a retrospective cohort study and meta-analysis

Subgroup N SMD (95% CI) Test(s) of heterogeneity Significance test(s) of SMD = 0 P a
I2 (%) P Z P  
Overall 16 0.79 (0.53–1.05) 74.5 0.000 5.97 0.000  
Four experiments excluded 12 0.75 (0.57–0.93) 26.5 0.184 8.19 0.000  
Geographic areas        
 Asia 3 0.50 (0.15–0.85) 2.3 0.359 2.77 0.006 0.026
 North America 7 0.81 (0.39–1.22) 74.2 0.001 3.80 0.000
 Europe 6 0.92 (0.48–1.36) 80.8 0.000 4.08 0.000
Storage method        
 Cryopreservation 2 0.20 (−0.11–0.52) 0.0 0.425 1.27 0.204 < 0.001
 Fresh 14 0.89 (0.63–1.15) 69.3 0.000 6.73 0.000
Preparation method        
 No preparation 10 0.82 (0.50–1.13) 63.1 0.004 5.14 0.000 0.023
 Swim up 4 0.57 (0.20–0.94) 53.6 0.091 3.04 0.002
 Discontinuous gradient 2 1.07 (−0.10–2.25) 95.1 0.000 1.79 0.074
FR cut-off value combined with AE assay method
≥ 70% vs. <  70% Spectrophotometry        NC
  Spectrophotometry/BAPNA 1 0.86 (0.30–1.41) b 3.03 0.002  
≥ 50% vs. <  50% Spectrophotometry
  Spectrophotometry/BAPNA 2 0.94 (0.18–1.71) 72.5 0.056 2.41 0.016  
>  50% vs. = 0% Spectrophotometry
  Spectrophotometry/BAPNA 1 0.82 (0.26–1.38) 2.87 0.004  
>  0% vs. = 0% Fluorometry
  PAb-acrosin 1 1.68 (1.29–2.07)    8.45 0.000  
  PAb-hyaluronidase 1 0.48 (0.13–0.82)    2.68 0.007  
  MAb 4D4-proacrosin 2 0.72 (0.32–1.13) 0.0 0.600 3.50 0.000  
  Spectrophotometry        
  Spectrophotometry/BAPNA 2 1.23 (−0.74–3.19) 93.5 0.000 1.22 0.221  
Accu-Sperm spectrophotometry/BAPNA 5 0.70 (0.41–0.99) 22.5 0.271 4.70 0.000  
Spectrophotometry/BAEE 1 −0.04 (−0.72–0.64) 0.12 0.908  
  1. SMD standardized mean difference, CI confidence interval, BAPNA N-α-benzoyl-dl-arginine-p-nitroanilide, BAEE N-benzoyl-l-arginine ethyl ester, NC not compared
  2. aComparison between subgroups with the Q test for heterogeneity
  3. bNot calculated