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Fig. 7 | Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology

Fig. 7

From: A novel and compact review on the role of oxidative stress in female reproduction

Fig. 7

The signaling pathway of OS and pregnancy (a brief view). When the body, especially the maternal body, suffers from an imbalance between oxidation and antioxidant levels during pregnancy, in addition to changes in TNF-α, changes in progesterone cannot be ignored. First, TNF-α activates a series of signaling pathways in cells through cAMP, such as stimulation of the Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway, NF-κB signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, etc., then promoting an increase in cytokines and changes in antioxidant-related genes. However, FOXO3 is involved in these signaling pathways. When FOXO3 is increased, it promotes the binding of Keap1-Nrf2, lowering the level of antioxidants and promoting the release of NF-κB by IKKβ by stimulating BCL10, thereby promoting the increase in cytokines and apoptosis. Finally, the mechanism underlying the changes in the FOXO family under the combined effects of both reproductive and oxidative stress remains unclear. It can only be demonstrated that JNK undergoes dephosphorylation of FOXO1 under the action of cAMP and ROS when oxidative stress occurs to induce it to enter the nucleus and promote apoptosis. When progesterone is reduced, nuclear translocation occurs in FOXO1, and it is phosphorylated

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