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Table 3 Summary of previous inconsistent studies of MUC1, LIF and integrin β3 expression in endometrium

From: Decreased MUC1 in endometrium is an independent receptivity marker in recurrent implantation failure during implantation window

Source Study (n) Fertile control (n) Timing of biopsy Methods MUC1 LIF Integrin αvβ3/β3
RPL/RM Xu et al. 2011 30 26 LH + 7–8 day Immunohistochemistry
Banerjee et al. 2012 36 30 LH + 5–10 day Immunohistochemistry
Flow cytometric analysis
Germeyer et al. 2014 21 29 LH + 5–7 day Immunohistochemistry NA NA
Karaer et al. 2014 30 30 LH + 6–11 day RT-PCR NA NA
WU et al.2018 a 25 20 LH+ 7 day Immunohistochemistry
RIF Mariee et al. 2012 45 15 LH + 7–9 day Immunohistochemistry NA NA
Coughlan et al. 2013 45 6 LH + 7–9 day Immunohistochemistry NA NA
Bastu et al. 2015 26 23 LH + 7–9 day ELISA & Western-blot NA NA
Comba et al. 2015 21 20 LH + 6–10 day ELISA NA NA
WU et al. 2018 a 14 20 LH + 7 day Immunohistochemistry
  1. RPL, recurrent pregnancy loss RM, recurrent miscarriage RIF, recurrent implantation failure RT-PCR, quantitative real-time PCR, ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. ↓ expression significantly reduced; ↔ expression no significant difference; ↑ expression significantly increased when compared with control. NA, not available; a present study