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Table 1 Subject demographic and clinical characteristics (Unweighted n = 545, Weighted n = 25,563,095)

From: Sugar-sweetened beverage intake and serum testosterone levels in adult males 20–39 years old in the United States

  Total(n = 545) Testosterone (ng/dL) p-value
Normal (≥231)(n = 486) Low (< 231)(n = 59)
Age (years) 28.9 ± 0.5 28.7 ± 0.5 30.7 ± 1.0 0.072
Race 0.597
 Non-Hispanic White 213 (58.2) 184 (57.8) 29 (61.5)  
 Mexican American 49 (9.2) 42 (8.7) 7 (13.6)
 Other Hispanic 64 (12.6) 59 (13.1) 5 (7.8)
 Non-Hispanic Black 124 (11.7) 112 (11.7) 12 (11.6)
 Other race 95 (8.3) 89 (8.7) 6 (5.4)
 Income/poverty ratio 2.6 ± 0.2 2.6 ± 0.2 2.2 ± 0.2 0.218
 Serum cotinine (ng/mL) 62.7 ± 8.9 58.7 ± 8.4 100.5 ± 27.6 0.152
BMI 0.026a
  < 25 kg/m2 204 (40.7) 199 (43.2) 5 (16.7)  
  ≥ 25 kg/m2 341 (59.3) 287 (56.8) 54 (83.3)
Heavy drinker 0.110
 No 497 (89.9) 440 (89.2) 57 (95.9)  
 Yes 48 (10.1) 46 (10.8) 2 (4.1)
Physical activity 0.245
  ≥ 500 MET-min/week 450 (86.5) 408 (87.0) 42 (81.7)  
  < 500 MET-min/week 95 (13.5) 78 (13.0) 17 (18.3)
SSBs (kcal/day) 0.510
 Q1 (≤137.0) 137 (25.2) 129 (26.5) 8 (13.2)  
 Q2 (138.0–272.0) 139 (26.6) 124 (26.4) 15 (28.1)
 Q3 (273.0–441.0) 133 (26.5) 119 (26.2) 14 (29.6)
 Q4 (442.0+) 136 (21.7) 114 (20.9) 22 (29.1)  
  1. Continuous variables are shown as mean ± standard error; categorical variables are shown as unweighted counts (weighted %)
  2. Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index (kg/m2); SSBs, sugar-sweetened beverages; MET, metabolic equivalent of task
  3. a Significant difference between normal and low testosterone levels, p < 0.05.