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Table 2 Effects of tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and drug addiction on spermatogenesis and sperm parameters

From: Smoke, alcohol and drug addiction and male fertility

  Studies in humans Animal studies
Tobacco smoking Reduction of sperm concentration [26, 27]
Impairment of sperm motility [17]
Increase in ultra-structural abnormalities (axonemal microtubules and tail alterations) [28, 29]
Impairment of mitochondrial activity and chromatin structure [17, 33, 34]
Impairment of acrosome reaction and capacitation [30, 31]
Increase of DNA methylation patterns [49]
Alterations in ERK1/2, nuclear factor-κB signal pathway [44]
Reduction of creatine kinase activity in sperm [55,56,57]
Increase in apoptosis via extrinsic (FAS, FASL) or mitochondrial processes (BCL, caspase-3) in rats [39, 40]
Reduction of antioxidant activity in rats [40]
Increase in DNA damage in sperm rats [41, 42]; of DNA methylation patterns PEBP1 gene in rats [44]
Reduction of sperm count and motility in rats [45]
Alcohol consumption Reduction of seminal volume and sperm concentration [58, 61, 62]
Impairment of sperm motility and morphology [60, 61]
Increased sperm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon DNA adducts [72]
Increase in apoptosis (by upregulation of Fas) of spermatogenic cells in rats [68]
Alteration of nuclear maturity and DNA integrity in sperm cells of rats [70]
Increase in ROS generation and depletion of glutathione pool in testicular tissue of rats [71]
Impairment of sperm motility in rats [70]
Drug addiction
 Marijuana Decrease in sperm count [82,83,84]
Impairment of sperm morphology and motility [85, 102, 103]
Reduction of spontaneous acrosome reactions [102, 103]
Impaired sperm concentration and morphology in rats [91]
Inhibition of sperm ATP production in rats [104]
Reduction of fructose and citric acid contents in testis and prostate of male rats [95]
 Cocaine Impairment of sperm counts and motility [86] Vasoconstriction of testicular blood vessels in rats resulting in ischemic and reperfusion injuries [96]
Reduction of diameter of seminiferous tubules [97]
Decrease in number of total germ cells [97]
Increase in oxidative stress in mice [98]
 Opioids Impaired spermatogenesis [76]
Increased rates of DNA fragmentation in humans [89]
Reduced expression of catalase-like and superoxide dismutase-like activity [89]
Increase of rates of DNA damage and tubular degeneration in rats [100, 101]
 Amphetamines and Ecstasy No data available Vasoconstriction of testicular blood vessels in rats [96]
Increase in rates of DNA damage and tubular degeneration in rats [99]