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Table 4 Effect of paternal age on various disorders showing effect of age and relative risk ratio

From: Effects of increased paternal age on sperm quality, reproductive outcome and associated epigenetic risks to offspring

Type of disorder Disorder Age (Reference age) Relative risk Reference
Neuro-cognitive Autism >45(<20) 3.3 [205]
>50(<30) 5.75 [226]
>50(<29) 2.2 [142,227]
Bipolar disorder >55(20–24) 1.34 [219]
Not specified 1.20 [220]
>45(20–24) 24.7 (Hazard Ratio) [14,206]
Schizophrenia Not specified 1.47 [207]
Autosomal dominant   >50(25–29) 1.66 [214,215]
  >32(<28) 3.00 [13]
  >55(25) 5.92 [211,213,216]
Achondroplasia >30(<30) 3.48 [234]
  >50(25–29) 7.80 [236]
Apert syndrome - - [235-237]
Neurofibromatosis I >35 (<35) 1.69 [238]
  >40(<30) 2.9 [239]
Osteogenesis imperfecta 22-80 1.37 [13]
  >35(<35) 1.62 [240]
  >35(<25) - -
Retinoblastoma >35(Not specified) 1.73 [241]
  >45 3.00 [242]
Congenital Abnormalities Cleft Lips Not specified   [243]
Anencephaly >40   [11]
Transposition of Great Vessels >45 > 40 1.27 [11]
1.20  
Ventricular Septal Defects >35 3.63 [160]
30–34 1.69  
(25–29)   
Artrial Septal Defect 35-39 1.95 [160]
(25–29) 1.2  
40–44   
(25–29)  
Neural tube defect 45-49 1.3 [160]
(25–29)  
  >50(25–29) 1.6 [160]
  35-39 0.6 [244-246]
  (20–29)   
  >50(25-29 2.3 [244-246]
MSA >35(30–34) 1.33 [246]
Tracheoesophageal fistula 30-34(<25) 2.55 [247]
- 3.12 [248]
- 1.34 [248]
Others OCD >40 1.14 [248]
Childhood CNS Tumor >35-39 1.11 [248]
(25–29)   
Childhood Leukemia >35-39 1.29 [248]
(25–29)   
Mood disorder >35-39 1.07 [249]
(25–29)   
Personality disorder -- - [249]
Mental retardation - - [249]
Pervasive developmental disorders - - [249]