Effects of IL-8 and activated PMNs on live cell number and tubular formation of LEC. Figure 5A-C shows the effect of IL-8 and PMNs on the function of LECs in vitro. Figure 5A shows that IL-8 at 10 and 100 ng/ml as well as FGF2 stimulated live cell number of LECs. The data show that IL-8 at 10 and 100 ng/ml as well as FGF2 stimulated the length of capillary-like tube (Figure 5B), and the area of tubular structure (Figure 5C, n = 4). Figure 5D and E shows the effects of PMNs on tubular formation of LECs. PMNs from the early luteal phase were cultured to activate in the presence of fMLP (10 and 100 nM) or without fMLP. An in vitro matrigel assay, the supernatant of activated-PMNs stimulated sprouting of capillary-like structures of LECs (n = 4, P < 0.05) compared with control and normal PMNs (non-activated supernatant of PMNs). Values are shown as the mean ± SEM. Different superscript letters indicate significant differences (P < 0.05) as determined by ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni's multiple comparison test.