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Table 3 Obstetric outcomes according to weight gain

From: The effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain on perinatal outcomes in Korean women: a retrospective cohort study

Weight gain during pregnancy (kg) Under recommendation* Recommendation Over recommendation p-value
Underweight (BMI < 18.5) Maternal complications 30 (17.3) 18 (8.9) 2 (4.8) 0.0136
  Neonatal complications 75 (43.4) 54 (26.7) 8 (19.1) 0.0004
  Cesarean section 48 (27.8) 62 (30.7) 16 (38.1) 0.4150
Normal (18.5 ≤ BMI < 23) Maternal complications 111 (21.5) 82 (11.6) 33 (9.9) < 0.0001
  Neonatal complications 171 (33.1) 186 (26.4) 87 (26.1) 0.0180
  Cesarean section 171 (33.1) 224 (31.7) 137 (41.0) 0.0107
Overweight (23 ≤ BMI < 25) Maternal complications 9 (31.0) 15 (19.2) 28 (21.7) 0.4006
  Neonatal complications 13 (44.8) 27 (34.6) 41 (31.8) 0.3927
  Cesarean section 12 (41.4) 35 (44.9) 61 (47.3) 0.8310
Obese (25 ≤ BMI) Maternal complications 10 (38.5) 19 (38.0) 39 (30.5) 0.5298
  Neonatal complications 11 (42.3) 23 (46.0) 42 (32.8) 0.2231
  Cesarean section 15 (57.7) 25 (50.0) 75 (58.6) 0.5767
  1. Based on chi-square or Fisher's exact test (count, %)
  2. BMI, body mass index; C/S, cesarean section
  3. *Recommended gestational weight gain; underweight: 12.5-18 kg, normal: 11.5-16 kg, overweight: 7-11.5 kg, obese: 5-9.1 kg