Dose-response effect of estrogenic mycotoxins and 17β-estradiol on total and progressive motility of stallion sperm. As shown in panels a and b, in vitro exposure to 0.1 mM α-ZOL significantly depressed total (p < 0.05) and progressive (p = 0.0001) motility, compared to controls ("0 μM"). Zearalenone, β-ZOL and E2 did not affect these two motility parameters at any concentration examined. Least Square Means obtained by the mixed model procedure. Different letters indicate values that differ significantly. a vs b = p < 0.05; a vs c = p = 0.0001; n = 5, replicates = 3.