Synergism between androgen and FSH. The figure depicts the potential synergism of androgens and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) during early folliculogenesis. Here in detail depicted only on pre-antral and early antral follicles, the figure is meant to demonstrate the high concentration of androgen receptor (AR) at pre-antral to antral stages, declining thereafter [10, 15–17]. High concentrations of AR at these stages are strongly suggestive of peak androgen effects at these stages of folliculogenesis. Androgens primarily affect granulosa cells  through transcriptional regulation via AR but do so also via non-genomic ways, with ligand-activated AR modulating FSH activity in granulosa cells. The box in the right lower quadrant schematically demonstrates the synergism between androgens and FSH, based on Lenie and Smitz , practically creating a feed back loop.Synergism between androgens and FSH suggests the possibility of new pharmacologic approaches to ovulation induction, utilizing this synergism in early folliculogegesis to improve oocyte numbesr and quality. For further detail, see text.