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Table 3 Effect of ovarian cycle on acute-stress-induced LH release.

From: Acute stress may induce ovulation in women

Species Stressor Phase of the cycle LH release References
Rats Placed in a mating cage without a male or laparotomy Persistent-vaginal-estrus (estradiol levels similar to the levels on the morning of proestrus) Positive (inferred by ovulation) [63]
  Laparotomy On the morning of proestrus Advance of the time of the primary LH surge [38]
   On the morning of diestrus-2 Delay of the time of the primary LH surge (and ovulation) [64]
  Intracerebroventricular injection of interleukin-1α or β On the morning of proestrus Inhibition of the primary LH surge (and ovulation) [65]
  Rapid blood volume depletion At diestrus (combined diestrus-1 and 2) Positive [66]
Rhesus monkeys 30-min chair restraint Mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases Positive [67]
  30-min intracerebroventricular administration of interleukin-1α Mid-follicular phase Positive [41]
   Early follicular phase No release [41]
Women Bilateral ovariectomy plus total hysterectomy Mid- to late-follicular phase Positive [43]
   Early- to mid-luteal phase No release [43]
  Cholecystectomy Early- to mid-follicular Positive [42]
  Progressive submaximal treadmill exercise to exhaustion Mid-follicular and mid-luteal phase No release [69]
  90-min submaximal bicycle exercise Mid-follicular and mid-luteal phase Decreased plasma levels of LH [46]
  60-min progressive submaximal treadmill exercise Mid-follicular phase Positive [49]
   Mid-follicular phase Positive [53]
   Mid-luteal phase No release [70]