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Table 2 Effect of hormone treatment on HPA axis response to acute stress.

From: Acute stress may induce ovulation in women

Species Stressor Hormone treatment HPA axis response References
Rats 20-min restraint Estradiol vs oil and estradiol plus progesterone Increased [39]
  Exposition to a novel environment Estradiol and estradiol plus progesterone vs no hormone treatment and progesterone Increased [40]
  5-sec footshock Estradiol vs no hormone treatment Increased [54]
  1-min exposure to ether vapors Estradiol vs no hormone treatment Increased [54]
Rhesus monkeys 30-min intracerebroventricular infusion of interleukin-1α Estradiol at doses resulting in the typical high levels of plasma estradiol that reproduce the late follicular phase Increased [56]
   Estradiol at doses resulting in low levels of plasma estradiol Increased [57]
   Estradiol at doses that results in intermediate levels of plasma estradiol that reproduce the early-mid follicular phase Inhibited [57]
Women Single intravenous injection of endotoxin Estradiol vs no hormone treatment No treatment effect [35]
  Psychological stress (speech and math tasks) Estrogens or estrogens plus progestogen vs no hormone treatment No treatment effect [58]
   Estradiol vs the same women before treatment Decreased [59]
  Psychological stress (mental arithmetic tasks accompanied by a repetitive annoying background noise Estradiol vs placebo Decreased [60]