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Table 1 Effect of ovarian cycle on HPA axis response to acute stress.

From: Acute stress may induce ovulation in women

Species Stressor Phase of the cycle HPA axis response References
Rats Surgery On the morning of proestrus Positive [38]
  20-min restraint On the morning of proestrus vs either estrus or diestrus Increased [39]
   Proestrus, estrus and diestrus II No cycle effect [40]
Rhesus monkeys 30-min intracerebroventricular administration of interleukin-1α Mid-follicular vs early-follicular phase Increased [41]
Women Bilateral ovariectomy plus total hysterectomy Mid- to late-follicular phase Positive [43]
   Early- to mid-luteal phase No response [42, 43]
  Cholecystectomy Early- to mid-follicular phase Positive [42]
  20-min progressive submaximal treadmill exercise Mid-luteal phase vs early follicular phase Increased [44]
  90-min submaximal bicycle exercise Mid-luteal phase vs mid-follicular phase Increased [46]
  90-min submaximal treadmill exercise Mid-luteal phase vs early- and late-follicular phase Increased [47]
  60-min progressive submaximal treadmill exercise Mid-follicular and luteal phase No cycle effect [49]
  Progressive maximal treadmill exercise to voluntary exhaustion or 40-min submaximal treadmill exercise Early-follicular vs mid-luteal phase No cycle effect [50]
  20-min progressive submaximal aerobic treadmill Early-mid-follicular, periovulatory and mid-late luteal phase No cycle effect [51]
  Psychological stress of remembering stressful situations in their lives and self-evaluation Menstrual and periovulatory (late-follicular, ovulatory and early-luteal phases) phase No cycle effect [52]
  Psychological stress of self-evaluation Ovulatory period vs premenstrual phase Decreased [48]