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Table 1 Demographic and obstetric characteristics of all women by treatment group

From: Comparison between amniotomy, oxytocin or both for augmentation of labor in prolonged latent phase: a randomized controlled trial

  Group 1 (Amniotomy) Group 2 (Oxytocin) Group 3 (Amniotomy and Oxytocin) Group 4 (Control)  
Obstetric and demographic data N = 70 N = 72 N = 71 N = 70 p
Maternal age, years 28.1 ± 4.9 (28) 28.5 ± 5.3 (27) 28.2 ± 5.0 (28) 28.7 ± 4.7 (29) 0.9
Gestational age, weeks 39.6 ± 1.1 (39.6) 39.6 ± 1.2 (39.6) 39.6 ± 1.1 (40) 39.7 ± 1.0 (39.6) 0.9
Parity 2.5 ± 1.3 (2) 2.5 ± 1.3 (2) 2.6 ± 1.4 (2) 2.2 ± 1.2 (2) 0.2
BMI (pre pregnancy) kg/m2 24.6 ± 4.8 (23) 23.3 ± 3.5 (23) 25.4 ± 5.6 (24) 23.5 ± 4.1 (23) 0.09
Weight gain, kg 12.2 ± 5.7 (12) 13.0 ± 5.6 (13) 12.5 ± 5.1 (12) 13.6 ± 5.1 (13) 0.5
Cervical dilatation, cm 3.0 ± 0.4 (3) 2.8 ± 0.4 (3) 3.0 ± 0.4 (3) 3.0 ± 1.0 (3) 0.3
Intra-partum fever 3 (4) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.03
Antibiotics use 4 (6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.007
Epidural use 18 (26) 23 (32) 18 (25) 21 (30) 0.9
Fetal scalp pH 1 (1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.5
Vaginal examinations 6.0 ± 2.8 (5)a 6.1 ± 2.4 (6)a 4.8 ± 1.6 (5) 5.6 ± 2.0 (6) 0.02
Fetal Scalp electrode 10 (14) 3 (4) 12 (17) c 15 (21) c 0.02
Intra-uterine pressure catheter 4 (6) 2 (3) 0 (0.0) 1 (1) 0.1
Time from enrollment until delivery, min 431 ± 346 (320) 494 ± 327 (396)a 312 ± 245 (246) 498 ± 306 (390)a 0.001
Duration of the first stage of labor, min 403 ± 327 (273)a 463 ± 313 (387)a 283 ± 233 (222) 460 ± 285 (371)a 0.001
Time from enrollment until the beginning of the active phase, min 284 ± 296 (180)a 361 ± 303 (278)a 183 ± 222 (109) 333 ± 270 (265)a 0.001
Duration of the active phase, min 118 ± 115 (85) 103 ± 89 (78) 101 ± 65 (89) 127 ± 96 (101) 0.3
Duration of the second stage, min 32 ± 51 (10) 31 ± 46 (10) 28 ± 41 (10) 38 ± 54 (12) 0.7
Delivery mode      0.8
Spontaneous vaginal 65 (93) 68 (94) 66 (93) 68 (97) ----
Vacuum 3 (4) 2 (3) 4 (6) 1 (1) ------
Cesarean 2 (3) 2 (3) 1 (1) 1 (1) 0.9
Vacuum or cesarean 5 (7) 4 (6) 5 (7) 2 (3) 0.6
Early post partum hemorrhage 0 (0.0) 3 (4) 3 (4) 0 (0.0) 0.09
Anal sphincter tear 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1.0
Post-partum fever 1 (1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.5
Women satisfaction 4.7 ± 0.6 b 4.7 ± 0.6b 4.9 ± 0.5b 5.0 ± 0.1 0.001
Birthweight, gr 3371 ± 424 (3377) 3386 ± 434 (3350) 3419 ± 409 (3376) 3309 ± 385 (3289) 0.5
Apgar score at 5 min 10.0 ± 0.2 10.0 ± 0.3 9.9 ± 0.2 10.0 ± 0.3 0.9
  1. Data are mean ± standard deviation (median) or n (%) unless otherwise specified.
  2. a, statistical difference (p < 0.05) was found when compared with group 3 after post hoc testing;
  3. b, statistical difference (p < 0.05) was found when compared with group 4 after post hoc testing.
  4. c, statistical difference (p < 0.05) was found when compared with group 2 after post hoc testing.