Skip to main content

Table 1 Cytokines, growth factors and adhesion molecules involved in diabetic retinopathy*

From: Maternal immune system adaptation to pregnancy - a potential influence on the course of diabetic retinopathy

Parameter DM without DR DM with NPDR DM with PDR
TNF-α No change Increased Increased
IL-1α Reduced Reduced Increased
IL-1β No change Increased No change
IL-4 No change Increased Reduced
IL-6 No change Increased Increased
IL-8 Increased Increased Increased
IL-10 Reduced No change Increased
VEGF Increased Increased Increased
EGF Increased Increased Increased
ICAM-1 Increased Increased Increased
VCAM-1 Increased Increased Increased
E-selectin Increased Increased Increased
  1. * Changes relative to levels in non-diabetic control subjects
  2. Abbreviations: DM, diabetes mellitus; DR, diabetic retinopathy; NPDR, nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy; PDR, proliferative diabetic retinopathy; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; IL, interleukin; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; EGF, epidermal growth factor; ICAM, intercellular adhesion molecule; VCAM, vascular cell adhesion molecule