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Table 1 The biological functions of the isoforms of hCG.

From: Biological functions of hCG and hCG-related molecules

Function References
   A. hCG  
1. Promotion of corpus luteal progesterone production [14, 1723]
2. Angiogenesis of uterine vasculature [2430]
3. Cytotrophoblast differentiation [31]
4. Immuno-suppression and blockage of phagocytosis of invading trophoblast cells [3238]
5. Growth of uterus in line with fetal growth [39, 40]
6. Quiescence of uterine muscle contraction [39, 4143]
7. Promotion of growth and differentiation of fetal organs [4449]
8. Umbilical cord growth and development [5153]
9. Blastocysts signals endometrium prior to implantation [5456]
10. hCG in sperm and receptors found in fallopian tubes suggesting pre-pregnancy communication [5760]
11. hCG receptors in adult brain hippocampus, hypothalamus and brain stem, may cause pregnancy nausea and vomiting [61, 62]
12. hCG and implantation of pregnancy, hCG stimulates metalloproteinases of cytotrophoblast cell. [6467]
   B. Hyperglycosylated hCG  
1. Stimulates implantation by invasion of cytotrophoblast cells as occurs at implantation of pregnancy, blocks apoptosis and growth and malignancy of choriocarcinoma cells. [8, 9, 71, 74]
2. Stimulates growth of placenta and malignant placenta by promoting growth of cytotrophoblast cells [9, 74]
   C. Free β-subunit  
1. Blockage of apoptosis in no-trophoblastic malignancies, promotion of growth and malignancy [83, 85, 9195]
   D. Pituitary hCG  
1. Seemingly mimics LH functions, promoting follicular growth, meiosis, stigma formation, ovulation, luteogenesis and promoting progesterone production. [121, 122]