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Table 3 Studies showing different methods of blastocyst pre-vitrification interventions and their outcome parameters

From: Factors affecting the outcome of human blastocyst vitrification

Blastocoele Evacuation
Authors, year Species Method Intervention Sample size Outcome parameter Intervention Control
Vanderzwalmen et al. 2002[37] Human Micro-needle puncture N = 75 Survival rate 70.6% 20.3%
     Pregnancy rate 20.5% 4.5%
     Implantation rate 18.4% 7.1%
Son et al. 2003[43] Human Micro-needle puncture N = 90 Survival rate 90.0% ---
     Pregnancy rate 48.0% ---
     Implantation rate 29.0% ---
Hiraoka et al. 2004[44] Human Micropipetting N = 48 Survival rate 98.0% ---
     Pregnancy rate 50.0% ---
     Implantation rate 33.0% ---
Chen et al. 2005[42] Mice Microsuction N = 108 Survival rate 92.0% 80.0%
Mukaida et al. 2006[41] Human Microneedle puncture N = 462 Survival rate 97.2% 85.0%
     Pregnancy rate 60.2% 34.1%
     Implantation rate 46.5% ---
Mukaida et al. 2006[41] Human Laser pulse N = 40 Survival rate 97.5% 85.0%
     Pregnancy rate 61.5% 34.1%
     Implantation rate 48.6% ---
Kader et al. 2009[45] Mice Microsuction N = 22 DNA integrity index 90.1% 77.6%
Zonal Hatching
Author, year Species Method Intervention Sample size Outcome parameter Intervention Control
Zech et al. 2005[40] Human Spontaneous and
Assisted (Mechanically)
N = 38 Survival rate 82% 64%
     Pregnancy rate 35% 21%
     Implantation rate 26% 12%
Kader et al. 2009[45] Mice Assisted (Acidified Tyrod's) N = 16 DNA integrity index 94.6% 84.4%
   Spontaneous N = 12 DNA integrity index 88.5% 77.6%