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Table 1 Occurrence of regular hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG and hyperglycosylated hCG free β in serum and urine samples [3034, 4143, 4559].

From: New discoveries on the biology and detection of human chorionic gonadotropin

  Regular hCG Hyperglycosylated hCG Hyperglycosylated hCG free β
1. Pregnancy    
Early pregnancy (3–5 weeks) ±
General Pregnancy (6 weeks – term)
Biochemical pregnancy ± MK ±
Spontaneous abortion ± MK ±
Ectopic pregnancy ± MK ±
Down syndrome pregnancy MK MK MK
Preeclampsia ± MK ±
Pituitary X
2. Neoplasia    
Hydatidiform mole ±
Invasive mole
Choriocarcinoma ± MK
Quiescent trophoblastic disease X MK X
Placental site trophoblastic tumor ± MK
Testicular germ cell tumor ± MK
Non-gestational malignancies ± ± MK
  1. All variants are present in both serum and urine samples. In this table, indicates principal hCG-form detected, indicates a key hCG-form always present, ± indicates absent or detected at very low levels, X indicates complete absence. MK and MK indicate elevated concentration is a marker for disorder, ± MK and X MK indicate deficiency or absence is a marker for disorder.