Summary of LPS-stimulated cytokine release from amnion and choriodecidua in Transwell cultures. Cytokines were released in a distinct manner from the amniotic and choriodecidual sides of human extra-placental gestational membranes exposed to LPS in Transwell cultures. Top: Exposure to LPS on the choriodecidual side of the membranes stimulated choriodecidual release of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-8; TNF-α release increased on the amniotic side, also. Bottom: Exposure to LPS on the amniotic side of the membranes stimulated amniotic release of IL-6 and TNF-α; IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-8 increased on the choriodecidual side, also. The wavy lines indicate inflammatory signal transduction across the membranes by an unknown mechanism.