Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated release of cytokines from human gestational membranes in Transwell cultures. Cytokine concentrations were measured in medium from the amniotic and choriodecidual sides of Transwell cultures of human extra-placental gestational membranes after an 8-h exposure to 100 ng/ml LPS on the amniotic side only, choriodecidual side only, or both sides of the membranes. Controls were exposed to culture medium without LPS. For some cytokines the very low means of controls are nearly contiguous with the x-axis. Values are expressed as mean ± SEM of combined values from triplicate cultures for each subject; n = 5 subjects. *Significantly different from control values of medium from the same side of the membranes (p < 0.05). #Significantly different from amniotic compartment values of the same treatment (p < 0.05). ∝ Significantly different between LPS treatments (p < 0.05).